Tag Archives: silicone soap molds

Jan
31

What are the ingredients for soap making?


This entry was posted in cold process soap, hot process soap, melt and pour soap, Natures Garden, Soap making supplies and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on by .

What are the ingredients for soap making?What are the ingredients for soap making?

Here at Natures Garden, we are often asked, “What are the ingredients for soap making?”.  We know it can be overwhelming at first.  Whether you have never made soap before or transitioning from creating melt and pour soap to taking on cold process soap.  Anything new can be a challenge at first and we are here to help you along the way.  Below, we will go through what ingredients and supplies are needed for each type of soap

What are the ingredients for soap making?: Melt and Pour Soap

First, we will talk about melt and pour soap.  This is a basic soap making method.  When using melt and pour soap, the saponification process is already done for you.  Natures Garden carries two pound slabs in several varieties.  Each slab is easy to cut and easy to use.

Melt and Pour Soap: Types of Melt and Pour Soap Bases

Goat’s Milk
Yogurt
Cocoa Butter
Oatmeal
Soya Milk
Shea Butter
Hemp Oil
Honey
Mango
Diamond Clear
SLS Free Clear Glycerin

Melt and Pour Soap: Melting the Soap

So, melt and pour soap, or mp soap will first need to be cut.  We cut the soap into small pieces prior to adding it to a bowl and melting it.  This will allow the soap to melt evenly.  Melt and pour soap can be melted in a microwave oven or in a double boiler.  So, you will need to either have a microwave or a double boiler to make melt and pour soap.  You will also need a cutting board, knife, and at least one mixing bowl.  Once melted, it is ready to be scented and colored.

Melt and Pour Soap: Adding Color

While you can simply melt the soap and pour it into a mold, many choose to add color.  There are a few ways you can color your handmade soap.  Which colorant you choose is a personal choice.  Once your soap is melted, you simply add the color and stir.  Read below for more information on a couple of the types of colorants that you can use.

Adding Color: FUN Soap Colorants

First, Natures Garden’s FUN Soap Colorants can be used.  These colorants are pigments dispersed in vegetable glycerin.  These colorants will give you a nice vibrant color in both clear soap bases and white soap bases.

Adding Color: Da Bomb Soap Dyes

Next, we will take a closer look at the Da Bomb Soap Dyes.  These handmade soap dyes are water based.  These soap colorants work wonderfully in melt and pour soap.  In a white base, they will give you a nice pastel-like color.  However, in a clear base, they are true to color and very bright.

Melt and Pour Soap: Scenting the Soap

You have a couple of options when scenting your soap.  The first choice is whether or not to scent your soap.  You can leave it unscented if you would like.  Although, you can also add a wonderful aroma to the soap.  This aroma can either come in the form of body safe fragrance oil or body safe essential oil.  Either way, you choose to go, the scent simply can be added to the melted soap and mixed right in.  You will find more details on scenting options below.

Scenting the Soap: Essential Oils

Essential oils are natural oils that are plant based.  Natures Garden carries pure essential oils that pure and unadulterated.  They are not diluted in any way.  This option is a perfect addition to your handmade soaps.  While essential oils will be single note scents, you can always create your own blend by mixing them together.  This will make the scent a little more complex.

Melt and Pour Soap: Choosing a mold

Once you have melted, scented and colored your soap, you will simply need to pour it into the mold and allow it to setup.  It is just that simple.  Let’s look at some of your mold options in a little more detail.

Choosing a Mold: Embed Molds

Embed molds will be smaller molds just like the molds that you would use when making chocolate candies.  They are the perfect size for creating guest soaps.  They are also the perfect size to use for embeds or even to top a soap loaf.

Choosing a Mold: Silicone Molds

Silicone molds are really easy to work with.  Since they are super flexible, removing the soap from the mold is a breeze.  They are durable and withstand high heat.

Choosing a Mold: Mold Market Molds

Natures Garden also carries Mold Market Molds.  These molds are made of a heavy duty plastic.  So, they will hold up pretty well.  They come in a variety of shapes and sizes and will help you create some unique handmade soap.

Melt and Pour Soap: Additional Options

When it comes to melt and pour soap, we have technically answered the question, “What are the ingredients for soap making?”.  However, there are a few additional options that you may like to know about.

First, let’s talk about rubbing alcohol.  This can be a melt and pour soap maker’s best friend.  Rubbing alcohol can be sprayed on melt and pour soap to release air bubbles once it is poured into the mold.  It can also be sprayed in between layers of soap to help them adhere to each other.

Next, herbs and clays can be added to soap.  These can be powdered or cut.  While herbs will oxidize over time, each herb will bring a different benefit to your soap.  The powdered herbs can be mixed with vegetable glycerin before being added to your soap.  Many will often use the powdered herbs or clays not only for the benefits of the powder but also as a natural colorant.  The cut herbs are often used not only for the benefits the herbs possess, but also for exfoliation or to add decorative touches.

What are the ingredients for soap making?: Cold Process Soap

Cold process soap is a method in which you are starting completely from scratch.  If you are new to making soap from scratch, you will want to read our soap making safety class.  This will walk you through the basics, as well as safety precautions.   You will also want to read over our beginner’s soap making class, Cold Process Soap Class 101.  You always want to wear safety gear and have vinegar close by when making soap from scratch.  So, now that you have read about soap making safety and read our soap making 101 class, let’s look at the ingredients and supplies needed.

Cold Process Soap: Supplies

While there are several ingredients needed for cold process soap making, you will also need supplies and safety gear.  So, below, is a list of supplies you will need for cold process soap making.  However, you want these supplies to be dedicated only to soap making.  You never want to use any of these supplies to come into contact with your food once they have been used for soap making.

Safety Gloves
Plastic Safety Goggles
Digital Scale
Stick Blender
Stainless Steel Stock Pot or Bowl
Small container or bowl to mix colorants
Long handled plastic spoon or spatula
Mixing bowls (dishwasher safe so you know it withstands heat)
A kitchen thermometer
Freezer Paper (used to line molds and protect your work surface)
Paper towels (to clean up small spills)
Bottle of Vinegar (used in case of lye or raw soap coming in contact with skin)
Soap Mold

Cold Process Soap: Ingredients

Next, let’s talk about the actual ingredients used for cold process soap making.  Cold process soap is created using lye, water, and a combination of oils.  However, it really isn’t as simple as throwing it all together and hoping for the best.  First, you will prepare a lye solution.  Separately, you will prepare your oils.  Then, wait for them to come to the correct temperature before combining them.  Finally, you will begin pouring the batter into a mold.  Once it has setup up, after 24-48 hours, it can be removed from the mold.  It is then allowed to cure before using. Let’s look a little closer at each of these below, as each phase has to be done in a certain manner.

Ingredients: Lye Solution

In order to create a lye solution, there are two ingredients you will need.  You will need distilled water and lye.  Lye is also known as sodium hydroxide.  The water is first weighed out.  Then, the weighed our lye is added to the water.  It is important that the water is never added to the lye.  You always want to add the lye to the water.  If you do it the other way around, it can create a volcanic effect.  The lye is added slowly, stirring as it is added.  Then, the lye solution is set aside so that it can cool.

Ingredients: Soaping Oils

Next, you will need soaping oils.  However, the combination of oils you use is extremely important.  Each oil will saponify a certain amount of lye.  If you use the wrong combination of oils, you could end up with a lye heavy bar of soap.  So, before creating your soap and choosing your oils, you will need to determine your recipe.  You can use one of Natures Garden’s soap making recipes, or create your own.  However, if you choose to create your own, make sure you run the recipe through a soap calculator to make sure that the recipe will work.  We recommend using soapcalc.  You should know that some oils will create a harder bar, others softer.  In addition, some oils will slow trace, others will speed up trace.

Once you choose and weigh out your oils, you melt them and allow them to cool a bit.  You can melt the oils using a double boiler.  We recommend allowing both your lye solution and soap oils to come to around 100 degrees Fahrenheit before combining them.

Ingredients: Scenting the Soap

You can also choose to scent your soap with either a body safe fragrance oils or essential oil.  However, the scent you choose can affect your soap batter.  So, we have created videos to show you exactly how each of Natures Garden’s fragrance oils will perform in cold process soap.  In addition, you can find our most popular cp soap scents here.  You can also use essential oils in your soap.

Ingredients: Coloring the Soap

When it comes to coloring your soap, we recommend using the FUN Soap Colorants.  These colorants will come through beautifully in cold process soap.  We have also created videos showing you the range of shades you can get with the FUN Soap Colorants.  While we talked about the Da Bomb Soap Dyes for melt and pour soap, we don’t recommend them for cp soap.  While, yes, they are safe to use in any type of soap, they will morph, or change color during the saponification process.  During saponification, the cp soap batter reaches high temperatures and the Da Bomb Dyes will not stay true to color.

Ingredients: Choosing a Mold

You have a few options when it comes to a soap mold.  I like silicone molds.  They are easy to work with and hold up extremely well to the high temperatures of the saponification process.  Also, the soap comes out of the molds very easily.  However, you can also use a wooden mold.  In addition, some heavier plastic molds will work.  Although this isn’t true of all plastic molds, they must be able to withstand the high temperatures.

What are the ingredients for soap making?: Hot Process Soap

The last method we will talk about is hot process soap, also known as hp soap.  This method is also done from scratch.  The same safety precautions taken when making cold process soap should be taken when creating hp soap.  So, make sure you read both the cold process 101 class and the safety precautions I linked to above in the cold process section.

So, what is the difference?  Hot process soap can be created using a crockpot.  Of course, this would need to be a crockpot used only for soapmaking, not food once it used for soap.  Crockpot soap will not have as long of a cure time as cold process soap.  This is because the heat from the crockpot speeds up the saponification process.  However, the same recipes, fragrance oils, molds, and colorants can be used.

What are the ingredients for soap making?:  Additional Ingredients

There are a few ingredients that can be used in any type of soap.  First, Vanilla White Color Stabilizer.  This ingredient will lessen the discoloration that can be caused by vanillin that is in some fragrance oils.  Sodium lactate is often used in various soap making methods as well.  It is a natural moisturizer that will help harden the soap.  Sodium lactate is used in both cold process and hot process soap.  We also talked earlier about herbs and clay in melt and pour soap.  They can also be used when making soap from scratch.

Jan
16

Valentines Day Soap Recipes


This entry was posted in bath and body, bath products, Natures Garden, soap, Soap Making, soap making recipes, Soap making supplies, Valentines Day, Valentines Day Bouquet, Valentines Day Craft, Valentines Day Recipe and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on by .

Valentines Day Soap RecipesValentines Day Soap Recipes

Creating romantic homemade gifts would be a great way to show your loved ones how much that you care about them. If you are interested in creating some cute homemade valentines day gifts, then you will definitely want to check out our Valentines Day Soap Recipes. These Natures Garden soap making recipes are perfect for making homemade bath and body recipes that will pamper your Valentine from head to toe. So, check out our homemade bath and body recipes and find the perfect soap recipe for your Valentines Day gift!

Valentines Day Soap Recipes: Hearts a Flutter Soap RecipeValentines Day Soap Recipes: Hearts a Flutter Soap Recipe

One homemade bath recipe that you can use this Valentines Day is our Hearts a Flutter Soap Recipe. This lovely melt and pour soap making recipe uses wonderful cosmetic recipes. This soap making recipe uses pretty shades of liquid soap dye, adorable heart molds, and skin loving melt and pour soap base. Not only does this bath and body recipe allow you to create some really cute bars of soap, but this soap is great for the skin too. The conditioning melt and pour soap base will nourish and cleanse the skin simultaneously. Your finished soap making recipes would be a perfect start to a relaxing and romantic soak in the tub. 

Valentines Day Soap Recipes: Perfectly Pampered Shaving Soap RecipeValentines Day Soap Recipes: Perfectly Pampered Shaving Soap Recipe

Another lovely bath recipe that you can create for your Valentine is the Perfectly Pampered Shaving Soap Recipe. This homemade soap recipe is both easy to create and absolutely adorable. This moisturizing shaving soap uses yogurt mp soap and cosmetic herbs to both condition and cleanse the skin. Plus, this recipe is scented with the unique, floral scent of our Cannabis Rose Fragrance Oil. Further, the first layer of this soap recipe includes rose clay powder to naturally color the pink soap layer. The second layer of this adorable heart shaped soap is topped with real rose petals. These cosmetic ingredients are perfect for skin care and would be a perfect diy romantic gift for pampering your loved ones.

Valentines Day Soap Recipes: Strawberries and Champagne CP Soap RecipeValentines Day Soap Recipes: Strawberries and Champagne CP Soap Recipe

Also, you can use one of our romantic cold process soap recipes to create homemade soap from scratch. The Strawberries and Champagne CP Soap Recipe is a wonderful soap recipe that you can share with your sweetie this Valentines Day. First of all, this fantastic cold process soap recipe uses liquid soap colorants to create a gorgeous, swirled cosmetic recipe. After the beautiful hues of pink, red, and champagne are swirled into the cp soap bar, the batch is topped with whipped soap frosting. Finally, embed soaps are added to the soap loaf, which pairs perfectly with the sweet, bubbly aroma of the NG Strawberry and Champagne Fragrance Oil. So, this soap making recipe is a perfect choice for anyone that is looking for diy Valentine gifts for her!

Valentines Day Soap Recipes: Solid Pink Salt Scrub RecipeValentines Day Soap Recipes: Solid Pink Salt Scrub Recipe

You can use create the Solid Pink Salt Scrub Recipe to share with your loved ones this Valentines Day. This lovely melt and pour soap recipe is perfect for exfoliating and moisturizing your skin. Your bath and body recipe uses pink Himalayan salt to create an exfoliating cosmetic recipe. Not only does is this cosmetic recipe a salt scrub, but the cosmetic oils in this recipe are conditioning. Plus, this pretty pink salt scrub includes the shimmering mica dust powder. Plus, this recipe is scented with the light and refreshing aroma of NG Sun and Sand Type Fragrance Oil. So, this gorgeous and nourishing cosmetic recipe would be perfect as a homemade Valentines Day gifts for her.

Valentines Day Soap Recipes: Cherry Chocolate Soap RecipeValentines Day Soap Recipes: Cherry Chocolate Soap Recipe

Next, we have a homemade soap making recipe that is perfect for chocolate lovers. The Cherry Chocolate Soap Recipe uses both our Cherry Fragrance Oil and organic cocoa powder. The aroma of red tart cherries and the scent of chocolate is a perfectly true aroma for these dessert soaps. These little melt and pour soap tarts use mp soap base and whipped soap base to create cute and scrumptiously scented soaps. These cute guest soaps are perfect for giving as diy Valentines Day gifts. Also, these scrumptious soaps can be paired with other cosmetic recipes to create a beautiful Valentines Day gift basket.  

Valentines Day Soap Recipes: Solid Sugar Scrub RecipeValentines Day Soap Recipes: Solid Sugar Scrub Recipe

If you are looking for some simple and fun Valentine crafts to sell, then the Solid Sugar Scrub Recipe might be the perfect craft idea for you. First of all, these adorable cosmetic recipes are simple to create and perfect for selling for Valentines Day! Not only are these cute little sugar scrubs easy to make at home, they are perfect for exfoliating dead skin and cleaning away the grime. Further, this bath and body recipe contains olive oil to add to the conditioning properties of the cosmetic recipes. Plus, this solid sugar scrub recipe uses the lovely and sensual floral musk of our Sweetheart Roses Fragrance Oil.

Valentines Day Soap Recipes: Chocolate Raspberry Drizzle Rolled Soap RecipeValentines Day Soap Recipes: Chocolate Raspberry Drizzle Rolled Soap Recipe

If you want to create a scrumptiously scented bath and body recipe, then you will want to take a look at this recipe for soap that looks like food. Our Chocolate Raspberry Drizzle Rolled Soap Recipe will allow you to create a delicious soap shaped like a cake. First, this food soaps recipe uses brown soap to create the chocolate scented cake portion of this soap loaf. Then, this brown soap is filled with raspberry scented whipped soap and rolled up. Once your soap roll is made you can top your dessert soap with more whipped frosting, mp soap raspberries, and a sweet drizzle. Not only does this bath recipe look amazing, but it is scented with the scrumptious aroma of the Chocolate Raspberry Drizzle Fragrance Oil. Anyone looking for delightful and unique romantic gifts will love this perfectly delicious soap recipe.

Valentines Day Soap Recipes: Heart Soaps with Love Message RecipeValentines Day Soap Recipes: Heart Soaps with Love Message Recipe

Another fun homemade soap recipe that you can create for Valentines Day is the lovely Heart Soaps with Love Message Recipe. This soap making recipe uses mp soap base and some adorable silicone soap molds to create a gorgeous cosmetic recipe. Further, this scented soap recipe includes the alluring scent of the Passionate Kisses Fragrance Oil. Not only does this recipe provide you with cute, stackable hearts, but you can add some extra love to your homemade gift. You can use and laminate our Love Messages or make your own love messages between the stacked hearts. Once you tie your stacked hearts together in a bow, this soap making recipe will be a perfect gift for your Valentine.

Valentines Day Soap Recipes: Wine Cold Process Soap RecipeValentines Day Soap Recipes: Wine Cold Process Soap Recipe

If you are thinking about what to make for valentine’s day, then this cp soap recipe would be perfect for the holiday of love. The Wine Cold Process Soap Recipe is an especially romantic cosmetic recipe that you and your partner will love on Valentines Day. This skin-loving cp soap recipe uses conditioning cosmetic oils to nourish the skin as you get clean. Further, this cold process soap recipe uses real wine and the Merlot Wine Fragrance Oil to create an authentic wine soap recipe. So, you can either create this scented soap recipe to enjoy yourselves with a relaxing night at home or use these valentines crafts to make and sell.

Valentines Day Soap Recipes: Metallic Kiss Soap RecipeValentines Day Soap Recipes: Metallic Kiss Soap Recipe

Anyone that is looking to create a cute and simple mp soap recipe will want to take a look at this melt and pour soap recipe. Another fantastic melt and pour soap recipe that you can create is the Metallic Kiss Soap Recipe. This adorable mp soap recipe uses melt and pour soap and liquid soap colorants to create adorable soaps. Our cute kissy lips soap can be made in a variety of different colors with soap dye and mica pigments. Plus, these melt and pour soaps include the exotic, floral aroma of our You Sexy Thing You Fragrance Oil. Altogether, these lovely soap making ingredients create homemade crafts for Valentines Day.

Valentines Day Soap Recipes: Valentine's Day Bouquet RecipeValentines Day Soap Recipes: Valentine’s Day Bouquet Recipe

Give your Valentine a gorgeous floral bouquet that they can enjoy and get some use out from as well! Our lovely Valentine’s Day Bouquet Recipe uses room scent recipes, like the scented roses and the aroma bead ornaments. Plus, this handcrafted arrangement includes beautiful heart shaped soap recipes. The melt and pour heart soap recipe includes our Dare to Be Sexy Fragrance Oil. This fragrance oil is a naughty blend of sweet sensuality and sinful fruits scents. This scented oil blends perfectly with the aroma of the Angel Love Fragrance Oil and the Fresh Cut Roses Fragrance Oil used in the other room scent recipes. The room scent bouquet is a wonderful blend of scents that you will love as a room scent recipe as well as a homemade soap recipe.

Valentines Day Soap Recipes: Lavender Luxury Cold Process Soap RecipeValentines Day Soap Recipes: Lavender Luxury Cold Process Soap Recipe

You can use the relaxing Lavender Luxury Cold Process Soap Recipe to treat your Valentine to a lovely bath experience. This homemade soap making recipe is perfect for adding to a lovely night having a lovely body spa at home. This bath and body recipe uses skin loving oils with other great soap making supplies to create this fantastic recipe. Plus, the aroma of this soap is a calming blend of fresh herbs and cool camphor. Not only does this homemade soap recipe include the tranquil and herbal aroma of our Lavender Luxury Fragrance Oil, but this soap recipe uses real lavender flower buds. Plus, this scented soap includes romantic rose petals, too. So, this homemade soap making recipe can be used as a romantic gift for your loved ones on Valentines Day.

Valentines Day Soap Recipes: Raspberry CP Soap RecipeValentines Day Soap Recipes: Raspberry CP Soap Recipe

Our Raspberry CP Soap Recipe is a great cosmetic recipe for soap made from scratch. This cold process soap recipe uses wholesale soap making supplies to create scrumptious bars of soap. These soaps use cosmetic oils that will nourish the skin. Not only do these cold process soaps use conditioning ingredients, but these soap recipes look like scrumptious raspberry dessert bars. Plus, these lovely homemade bars of soap are scented with the strong and true aroma of our Fresh Raspberry Fragrance Oil. Once the conditioning soap bars have set up completely, they are removed from the molds and topped with whipped soap and raspberry melt and pour soap. You can use this lovely soap making recipe as a gift for your loved ones this Valentines Day.

Valentines Day Soap Recipes: Making a Valentines Day Card

Of course, you don’t want to give a great gift without a card. Further, you will want to create a great Valentines Day card to go along with your homemade gift. Since your gift is unique, special, and homemade, you may want to create a cute card with a sweet, personalized message inside. If you are interested in creating your very own homemade cards, then you will definitely want to check out the valentines day ideas blog of 18 DIY Valentine’s Day Card Ideas by The Spruce Crafts to find some inspiration for your own homemade Valentines Day card!

Valentines Day Soap Recipes: Enjoy Your Valentines Day!Valentines Day Soap Recipes: Enjoy Your Valentines Day!

We hope that you’ve found a great homemade craft that you can create for Valentines Day this year! If you are looking for other cosmetic Valentine ideas, then you may want to check out our other Valentine’s Day Scents for inspiration. Also, you can reach out to us to get answers to any questions you may have. You can reach out to us in the store, on our HUG Line, and in social media. You can find us on the Natures Garden Facebook page. Also, you can use @ngscents to reach out on both Twitter and Instagram. Also, you can share your homemade Valentines Day crafts for adults and Valentines Day celebrations with us on our social media sites!

Jul
03

Common Cold Process Soap Questions


This entry was posted in bath and body, cold process soap, Natures Garden, soap, soap fragrance, soap ingredients, Soap Making, Soap making supplies, soap method, soap molds and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on by .

Common Cold Process Soap QuestionsCommon Cold Process Soap Questions

We at Natures Garden love to supply our customers with the best soap making ingredients and soap equipment that they need to succeed. But, you can’t utilize these tools if you don’t know how to. So, we want to answer some of the most common cold process soap questions that we get. This way we can help make your soap making experience as fun and exciting as possible!

Common Cold Process Soap Questions: What is the Shelf Life of Lye?Common Cold Process Soap Questions: What is the Shelf Life of Lye?

The shelf life of lye, sodium hydroxide, when properly stored is one year. After a year it is possible for your lye to work, but you should do a small batch to test whether the lye is still good. If it is actually expired, then it may not come to trace quickly or could separate after it is poured or set up. So, you will be able to notice an obvious difference if you make a small testing batch,

Common Cold Process Soap Questions: How Do I Make My Cold Process Soap Last Longer?

There are a few things that you can change to make your homemade soap last even longer. First, you can use additives, like sodium lactate or stearic acid, to harden the bar. Also, harder oils, like palm oil, can be helpful. Lastly, increasing the cure time, as water evaporates out, and decreasing the time in the shower will create a harder bar.

Common Cold Process Soap Questions: Is It Possible to Use Baby Oil as One of the Oils in a Soap Recipe?

No, you shouldn’t use baby mineral oil in your soap recipe for two reasons. First, it has already been scented. Second, the mineral oils won’t saponify.

Common Cold Process Soap Questions: How Do Your Make Cold Process Soap?Common Cold Process Soap Questions: How Do Your Make Cold Process Soap?

If you ever wondered how to make soap from scratch, then this is the answer. Before you begin you will either need to formulate a recipe or choose a recipe already formulated, we suggest using our Beginners Cold Process Soap Recipe if this is your first time. We also recommend reading through our cold process soap making classes, especially the soap making safety class. While there is a little more detail and safety practices to follow, this is the most basic method for soaping. First, you create a lye solution by slowly adding lye to water. In a separate bowl, you will have your weighed and melted oils and butters. You will combine these ingredients at a similar temperature and mix until your batter trace, which is a thicker consistency.  The soap is then poured into a soap mold. Once it has setup, it is removed from the mold and allowed to cure.

Common Cold Process Soap Questions: Why Are My Citrus Scents So Light in my Cold Process Soap?

Citrus scent oils often have a low flash point, so they are more likely to burn off the fragrance during the saponification process. During this process, the soap will reach very hot temperatures, which are able to burn off certain scents. It is common for citrus scents to be affected by this issue. How can I prevent this? First, make sure that the maximum amount for fragrance has been added. Also, you can anchor the scented oil by using a scent with a that is heavier, like vanilla. Alternatively, some soapers use kaolin clay to enhance the scent, but it can make your soap too slick.

Common Cold Process Soap Questions: Are Fragrance Oils or Essential Oils Better for Cold Process Soap?

You can use both essential oils and fragrance oils to scent cp soap. However, fragrances tend to hold better and the scent lasts longer. This is because fragrance oils have top, middle, and base notes that will hold up better together. On the other side, some single note oils whether they be essential oils or fragrance oils, are more likely to burn off. So, you will want to test each oil in cold process soap.

 

Common Cold Process Soap Questions: Can Cold Process Soaps Be Molded into Different Shapes?Common Cold Process Soap Questions: Can Cold Process Soaps Be Molded into Different Shapes?

Of course! There are many different styles of molds that you can use for soap making. Just don’t forget that this type of soap gets very hot. So, you need to make sure that you either use a silicone soap mold or a very thick plastic mold, like some of our Mold Market Soap Molds. However, plastic embed molds are not thick enough to hold your soap without melting and making a big mess. If you are unsure about a certain mold, it might be best to just save that shape for melt and pour soaps.

Common Cold Process Soap Questions: When Can I Cut Cold Process Soap?

Before you can cut your finished soap loaf, you need to wait for a bit. While the exact time varies for each batch depending on size and ingredients, we suggest waiting for 24-48 hours before removing and cutting your nearly finished soaps. However, you can use a gloved hand to check the soap to determine whether the soap is too soft. On the other hand, you don’t want to wait too long or the soap may dry too much and crumble as you cut.

Common Cold Process Soap Questions: How Long Does Soap have to Cure?

The exact amount of time your soaps take depends on your recipe that the amount of lye in it. However, most batches take about 2-6 weeks for the soaps to fully cure and be safe to use.

Common Cold Process Soap Questions: Does Natures Garden Offer Cold Process Soap Making Recipes?Common Cold Process Soap Questions: Does Natures Garden Offer Cold Process Soap Making Recipes?

Yes, we have all kinds of cold process soap recipes under the Cold Process Soap Recipes parts of the in the Free Recipes and Classes section of the NG site. There are so many options that it can be difficult to choose!

Common Cold Process Soap Questions: What Kind of Conditions Does CP Soap Need to Cure After it is Removed From Mold?

After your soap has been removed from the mold and sliced into bars, you will need to allow them to cure for a while. First, you will want to make sure that they are in a cool, dry environment. Also, you want to make sure that the bars a few inches apart. This will expose more of the bar to the air, which allows them to dry and set up properly.

Common Cold Process Soap Questions: What Will Make Cold Process Soaps Freeze or Set Up too Soon?

The oils that you use will come into play. Too much of some harder oils and butters can cause the soap to set up faster than others.  Additives can also cause your batter to accelerate.  However, often, this is an issue caused by the fragrance oil. Each fragrance performs differently in cp soap and the ones that cause too much acceleration can lead to seizing, or a sudden setting up, in the soap batter before it has made it to the mold. Further, there are some fragrance oils that will actually slow down the process and give you time to really work on a recipe.

Common Cold Process Soap Questions: Do You Have Any Tips for Working with Problem Fragrance Oils in Cold Process Soap?Common Cold Process Soap Questions: Do You Have Any Tips for Working with Problem Fragrance Oils in Cold Process Soap?

It’s always a bummer when a scent you enjoy is a “problem fragrance oil”, but there are some things that will allow you to work with this fragrance oil anyway. First, we have the issue of acceleration. While we can’t fix the fragrance, we can cool our oils and lye water to room temperature before we start the saponification process. The cooler temperature takes longer to get to trace, which will help balance the acceleration from the fragrance oil. Also, you can formulate a soap recipe with oils that will slow trace, like sunflower oil. Although these two tricks can be used to slow an accelerated trace, it can’t stop a soap from seizing.

Second, we have the issue of separation. Sometimes a fragrance that separates from the mixture can be stick blended back in with enough effort. Also, it is possible for the scent to reabsorb during the curing process. You just need to keep an eye on these to determine whether the fragrance is worth using in cp soaps. Third, we have the issue of ricing, which is when little chunks form in your batch. While this can’t be prevented, it can be stick blended until the ricing is smoothed out. However, this only works in some cases.

Finally, some fragrance oils can cause your soap to discolor. Some scents can’t be prevented, but there are some cases when a soap additives can do the trick. If the description of your scent says it contains vanillin, it will discolor your soap to a shade of brown. However, you can use Vanilla White Color Stabilizer to help lessen any discoloration due to vanillin. Other kinds of discoloration will just have to be included into the soap design.

Common Cold Process Soap Questions: What is the Best Way to Clean Up Cold Process Soap?Common Cold Process Soap Questions: What is the Best Way to Clean Up Cold Process Soap?

After you pour your batch into the soap mold, you may realize that you have a mess on your hands. Whether you spilled a few drops, made a complete mess, or only have the bowls to wash out, you are going to need to know how to safely clean up your lye mixtures. Before you get started, it is extremely important to have something on hand to neutralize the soap batter. So, you will need vinegar, which we prefer to have in a spray bottle to make it easy to apply in case of skin contact. After all the batter on the counter and soap equipment has been neutralized, you can begin cleaning with soapy water, we use dawn dish soap, to clean everything up again.

Common Cold Process Soap Questions: Is it Okay to Use My Soaping Bowls and Utensils for Cooking After Using it for CP Soapmaking If I Prewash It and Then Run It Through the Dishwasher?

No, it is very unsafe to use your soap making equipment in the kitchen. After you’ve used a bowl, mold, or other utensil for soaping you should never use it for anything other than soapmaking. Lye is very reactive and has the potential to do some serious harm after ingestion. So, it is a horrible idea to put this soaping equipment in contact with food or cooking utensils.

Common Cold Process Soap Questions: What Would Cause a Batch of Soap to Erupt While in the Soap Mold?Common Cold Process Soap Questions: What Would Cause a Batch of Soap to Erupt While in the Soap Mold?

Natural sugars in soaping ingredients can lead to an eruption, as  the soap gets hotter than it typically does. CP soap can erupt due to improperly  adding things like beer, wine, or milk. First, freezing these ingredients before adding them is helpful. If you are using beer, then make sure that you release all of the carbonation before including it in soap. Also, you will want to boil wine before adding it to your soap.

Common Cold Process Soap Questions: Can I Use Cup Measurements for Soap Making?

For soap making, we would recommend using weighted measurements . Using a scale is much more accurate and will ensure that you have a quality batch of soap. Otherwise, you may accidentally do something to mess up your soaps. For example, you could add to little oils and create a lye heavy batch.

Common Cold Process Soap Questions: Can You Make Good Quality Soap Using the Cold Process Soap Method Without Palm Oil?Common Cold Process Soap Questions: Can You Make Good Quality Soap Using the Cold Process Soap Method Without Palm Oil?

Absolutely. One of the best parts about making cp soap is that you can include whatever oils and butters you want. You can use SoapCalc to combine your favorite soaping ingredients in a perfect batch of soap! If you would rather follow a recipe that we have formulated, Natures Garden has a few recipes under Free Recipes and Classes that are made without palm oil. For example, there is  our Calendula Sunshine Cold Process Soap Recipe and our Argan Soap Recipe.

Common Cold Process Soap Questions: Reach Out to UsCommon Cold Process Soap Questions: Reach Out to Us

We hope that you learned something useful for making cold process soap in this blog. If you have any further questions, you can reach out to us in the store, on the phone, or online. If you want to reach out to us online, then try out social media. You can find us on Facebook, Twitter (@ngscents), and Instagram (@ngscents). Have fun soapmaking!

Jun
08

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes


This entry was posted in Natures Garden, Soap making supplies and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on by .

Cocoa Butter Soap RecipesCocoa Butter Soap Recipes

If you are wondering how to make homemade soap, then we may want to check out our cocoa butter soap recipes. These easy homemade soap recipes all use our Cocoa Butter Melt and Pour Soap base and have detail instructions on how to recreate these soap recipes. Also, these recipes are perfect for any of our customers that are just looking for some inspiration. These inventive recipes are sure to get your creative juices flowing and ready for soap-making. Plus, we have some unique and fun soap recipes that may spark an idea for your own recipes. So, lets get started with these fun recipes for melt and pour soap wholesale.

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Chocolate Raspberry Drizzle Rolled Soap RecipeCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Chocolate Raspberry Drizzle Rolled Soap Recipe

First, we have a delicious loaf of soap that looks just like a dessert! So, if you are interested in making soap that both smell and look scrumptious, then this recipe will help you learn how to make dessert soaps. Our Chocolate Raspberry Drizzle Rolled Soap Recipe uses melt and pour soap base and whipped soap base to create a rolled soap loaf that will have your mouth watering. Plus, this recipe includes real cocoa powder in the chocolate layer, which is perfect for adding a natural color that is authentic and this herb enhances the chocolate scent. Another fantastic point is that real chocolate includes cocoa butter and cocoa power, too. So, this loaf of soap will be that much more delicious!

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Chocolate Raspberry Drizzle Fragrance OilCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Chocolate Raspberry Drizzle Fragrance Oil

Plus, this herb adds to the scent of the Chocolate Raspberry Drizzle Fragrance Oil, which starts with a rich dark chocolate aroma that intertwines with the freshly ripened raspberry notes for the fragrance signature. Then, the Green tones create a natural appeal for the overall character, while a generous base of velvet musk and sweet vanilla completes this delicious scent. Not only is this scent absolutely scrumptious, but this delightful aroma is a perfect match for our yummy soap recipe. 

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Christmas Bath Cookies RecipeCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Christmas Bath Cookies Recipe

Next, we have a simple and fun bath and body recipe! Anyone that has made Christmas cookies around the holidays will know how much joy they bring. So, we wanted to take this wonderful energy and create the delightful Christmas Bath Cookies Recipe, which is basically a super fizzy bath bomb recipe. Plus, this recipe uses herbs, kaolin clay, and skin-loving oils to create a recipe that will really care for your kin. Plus, you will use your hands to form cookie shapes. This means that you aren’t going to need a soap mold. Then, the melt and pour soap is used to frost the top of this sugar cookie bath product, which you can top with festive sprinkles. Such a simple recipe that is perfect for anyone looking for easy homemade soap recipes!

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Christmas Cookies Fragrance OilCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Christmas Cookies Fragrance Oil

Appropriately, our Christmas cookie bath fizzies were scented with the Christmas Cookies Fragrance Oil. In fact, we were inspired by the tasty aroma of this fragrance to create something that was fun and yummy. There’s nothing more fun on Christmas than festive cookies fresh from the oven. Our fragrance captures the essence of this moment with an aroma that smells just like a freshly-baked batch of buttery Christmas Cookies that is decorated with sweet vanilla frosting. It is just such a perfect cookie aroma for this bath recipe!

Pistachio Pudding Soap RecipeCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Pistachio Melt and Pour Soap Recipe

Also, you can use this melt and pour soap base to create some delicious dessert soaps. We used the cocoa butter melt and pour soap along with diamond clear and a whipped soap base to make our Pistachio Melt and Pour Soap Recipe. We used some melt and pour soap to create layers that perfectly matched a real slice of pistachio pudding!

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Pistachio Pudding Cake Fragrance OilCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Pistachio Pudding Cake Fragrance Oil

For this super cute recipe we used the delicious scent of Pistachio Pudding Cake Fragrance Oil.  This fragrance has the aroma of pistachio nuts, almonds, sweet honey, heliotrope, and creamy vanilla custard. So, you can have a melt and pour soap recipe that smells and looks just like the real thing!

Cherry Chocolate Soap RecipeCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Cherry Chocolate Soap Recipe

Next, we have a cherry chocolate soap recipe that is perfect for creating cute little guest soaps that are sure to start a conversation. These soaps are unique and scrumptious. The scent of the strong cherry fragrance mixed with the true chocolate scent of cocoa powder makes for an unforgettable soap that you are sure to love!

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Cherry Fragrance OilCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Cherry Fragrance Oil

Another reason why this recipe is so delicious is because of the Cherry Fragrance Oil! Anyone that enjoys cherries is going to adore this fragrance, as it has the undeniable aroma fresh tart red cherries. Plus, it is very strong!

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Swirled Melt and Pour Soap RecipeCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Swirled Melt and Pour Soap Recipe

Another on of our fun and easy homemade soap recipes is the Swirled Melt and Pour Soap Recipe. If you have ever wanted to swirl melt and pour soap, then you know that it can be hard! While cold process soap can be used to create some gorgeous swirls, melt and pour sometimes blends instead of swirling.

But, have no fear because there is a trick for swirling melt soap that is fairly simple. All you have to do is add cosmetic clay to you soap and they will allow you to create pretty swirled soaps! We included rose clay, which is referred to as pink clay, and kaolin clay because they are both gentle, skin loving clays. Plus, we used Cocoa Powder as a natural colorant and to add to the chocolate scent of the fragrance oil. This is a fun soap recipe to create and you can even use this swirling technique in your other melt and pour soap recipes!

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Chocolate Covered Strawberries Fragrance OilCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Chocolate Covered Strawberries Fragrance Oil

Another great scent to add to your soap making supplies is this aroma blend of sweet, juicy strawberry and decadent chocolate. This delicious blend is a great Valentines day scent, but would be perfect for all year round, too. Our Chocolate Covered Strawberries Fragrance Oil has hints of orange liquor that  are used to accent the sweet fruity tones of this luscious dessert scent. Then, the juicy red strawberry scent is blended with a creamy milk chocolate aroma, sweet vanilla creme, and rich maple combine to create a decadent dessert scent.

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Vanilla Sugar Scrub Cubes RecipeCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Vanilla Sugar Scrub Cubes Recipe

Next, we have a soap making recipe that would be perfect to use for guest soaps. They are big enough to last a few washes and the batch makes a whole bunch, so you will be all set for hosting! Our Vanilla Sugar Scrub Cubes Recipe creates about 24 little bars of soap that will really care for the skin. We included ingredients that are sure to help care for the skin. We added sugar to exfoliate the skin and luscious oil to moisturize, too. Furthermore, the strong aroma of true vanilla powder is perfect for heightening the scent of the fragrance oil.

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes: NG Warm Vanilla & Sugar Type Fragrance OilCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: NG Warm Vanilla & Sugar Type Fragrance Oil

The NG Warm Vanilla & Sugar Type Fragrance Oil is another one of our fabulous fragrance oils! This sweet scent blends perfectly with the aroma of the added vanilla powder as it is a warm aroma of vanilla with a musky background notes. This oil scent is a lovely blend that is simple and sweet.

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Beet Root Facial Soap RecipeCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Beet Root Facial Soap Recipe

Another great recipe that uses Cocoa Butter Melt and Pour Soap is the Beet Root Facial Soap Recipe. Since this soap base is moisturizing and full of great ingredients, it is safe to use on the face. Another important part about this recipe is that it is unscented, as fragrance oils may lead to break outs on the face. So, this lovely soap recipe is perfect for getting  squeaky clean while caring for you skin.

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Macaroon Melt and Pour Soap RecipeCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Macaroon Melt and Pour Soap Recipe

Next, we have a soap that look like macaroons! These yummy treats come in so many different flavors, so you can mix up the coloring to create the type of macaron soap that you want! Also, you could even add color to the filling if you wanted. So, try out the yummy Macaroon Melt and Pour Soap Recipe! For each cookie we used a Mini Sugar Cookie Mold to create two colored cookies and filled them with fluffy whipped soap.

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Almond Macaroon Fragrance OilCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Almond Macaroon Fragrance Oil

In these bright macaroons we used the Almond Macaroon Fragrance Oil. If you wanted, you could scent each of your differently colored cookies with a different scent. However, we enjoyed this tasty almond cookie scent. The aroma starts with notes of sweet orange and toasted almonds. Next, the scent carries a bakery aroma with warm cookie and toasted nut. Lastly, the base of this scent is a Vanilla bean, which sweetens the cookie tones and finishes the gourmand treat.

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Soap Frosting RecipeCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Soap Frosting Recipe

Another great way that you can use make and pour soap base is the Soap Frosting Recipe. This fun recipe allows you to create a whipped frosting that can be used for all kinds of dessert recipes. Whether you want to create a soap cupcake, frosted cookie soap, or make a fluffy filling, this recipe is perfect! Plus, you can switch out the cocoa butter soap base with any of your favorite MP soap types.

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Buttercream Fragrance OilCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Buttercream Fragrance Oil

Since this recipe is used to make a white frosting, we decided to use our Buttercream Fragrance Oil. This fragrance has an aroma that is a sweet, creamy buttercream frosting with a touch of vanilla. While this sweet dessert scent is perfect for creating frosting, you can change the scent to match your own recipes.

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Chocolate Dipped Bath Fizzies RecipeCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Chocolate Dipped Bath Fizzies Recipe

This next melt and pour soap recipe reminds me of those yummy cake pops! Moist, fluffy cake surrounded by smooth, rich chocolate all bit sized and on a stick. If you want to learn how to make soap cake pops, then this may be a good recipe to start with! Later, you could use this idea to create all kinds of cute cake pop soaps. So, try out our Chocolate Dipped Bath Fizzies Recipe! We used a silicone soap mold and lollipop sticks to create little soap bars that look just like a bite sized cake. Such a simple recipe that will leave you with some fantastic melt and pour soaps.

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Chocolate Lovers Type Fragrance OilCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Chocolate Lovers Type Fragrance Oil

If you love chocolate, then this next soap making fragrance is perfect for you! This is a complex and delicious scent that will having you inspired to create soap beautiful homemade soaps. The Chocolate Lovers Type Fragrance Oil is a combination of lemon, orange, bergamot and mandarin top notes. Then, notes of lily of the valley and coriander are added to unmistakable notes of sweet chocolate, which is enveloped in warm vanilla and musk. Such a gorgeously complex chocolate scent oil.

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes: What's a Cake PopCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: What’s a Cake Pop

If you have never made or eaten a cake pop, then you may be thinking “What is a Cake Pop?” They are a bit sized cakes that are surrounded by frosting and on a convenient stick. Divas Can Cook has a great recipe for creating Cake Pops. If you are interested, check out their recipe How to Make Cake Pops … Easily!!! There are tips for beginners and a full recipe to create these little cake treats!

Cocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Find Us On Social MediaCocoa Butter Soap Recipes: Find Us On Social Media

You hope that you have found some melt and pour soap recipes that you enjoy! If you have any questions or run into any problems, then you can reach out to use at Natures Garden. Of course, you can always stop in or call the the store during business hours. Additionally, you can reach out to us on social media. We are on Facebook, Twitter (@ngscents), and Instagram (@ngscents). Also, these would be perfect places to share with us your favorite recipes or even your own creations. We hope to hear from you soon!

Jun
25

How To Make Soap


This entry was posted in bath and body, bath products, cold process soap, Fragrance Oils, herbs, make your own soap, melt and pour soap, soap and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on by .

Soap Making Supplies

How to Make Soap from Scratch 

The earliest recorded proof of soap making, saponification, was found around 2800 BC in ancient Babylon.  The recipe for this soap-like substance consisted of water, alkali, and cassia oil.  Years later, in ancient Rome, soap was made using tallow, tree ash, and water.  Fast forward to today, soap is made using vegetable or animal fats/oils, and an alkaline mixture of lye and water.  One thing is for certain:  soap cannot be made without lye.  Even when soap was made with tree ash, water, and tallow, the tree ash contained lye.  You see, fats and water do not mix together, therefore, lye works as an emulsifier that allows these polar opposite ingredients to combine to make soap.

Before you make soap, make sure that you become familiar with the safety precautions to follow when handling lye.  Natures Garden provides a Soap Making Safety Class that will explain the hazards of soap making, and the necessary safety gear that you should wear when making soap.

Now that you understand how important safety is when making soap, you will need to buy the equipment and soap making supplies you need to make homemade soap.

Equipment you will need for soap making- By the way, once your equipment comes into contact with lye, you can NEVER use this equipment for food contact again!  Ingestion of lye can kill you.

1.  Heavy duty plastic bowls
2.  Plastic spoons or Silicone spatulas
3.  Whisk or Stick Blender
4.  Thermometer
5.  Soap Safe Molds- such as plastic or silicone (never allow lye to come into contact with aluminum)
6.  Scales to weigh out your ingredients
7.  Plastic wrap to insulate your soap while it cures
8.  Safety goggles, safety gloves, safety mask, and wear long sleeve clothing to protect skin from being burned.
9.  Spray bottle containing vinegar.  Keep a bottle of vinegar with you when mixing your lye just in case; it will neutralize the lye and stop the burning process immediately.

Soap Making Recipe and Exact Amounts that you will need to make soap:

The recipe we use at Natures Garden to test our fragrance oils is listed below.  We use this recipe because it allows you to make colorful swirled soap once you have more experience.  We also love this recipe because it is very moisturizing to the skin, yet still provides a creamy lather.  This recipe makes 3 pounds of soap.

12.16 oz Water (345 grams)
4.4 oz Lye (125 grams)

9.6 oz Olive Oil (272 grams)
9.6oz Shea Butter (272 grams)
6.4 oz Coconut Oil 76 (181.5 grams)
6.4 oz Palm Oil (181.5 grams)
2 oz. Copperhue Suntan Lotion Fragrance Oil
FUN Soap Colorant (optional- but if you use color, we suggest using orange color)

Instructions for making soap:

  1. It’s important to prep your area with the equipment and items you will need before you start. You don`t want to have to stop half way through and run to go get something!
  2. You should be mixing your lye solution in a well-ventilated area. No kids or pets anywhere nearby! Lye is very caustic and will create fumes that should not be inhaled as they can burn the tissue of your lungs. Also if it gets splashed on you, it can cause a nasty burn on the skin.
  3. Make sure that you have your bottle of vinegar handy if you get lye solution on your skin.
  4. Weigh out your lye
  5. Weigh out your distilled water
  6. Slowly add lye to your distilled water and stir until lye is dissolved.  NEVER EVER add your water to the lye!  It will produce a hazardous volcano scenario.
  7. Set you water/lye solution somewhere safe where kids and pets cannot get to it or knock it over.  Allow this solution to cool to around 90-100F.
  8. Weigh out your oils and butters.
  9. Melt your oils and butters until they are completely melted, but be careful not to get them too hot or they may burn.
  10. Allow your oils/butters to cool to around 100F.
  11. Add your lye/water solution to your oil/butter solution and mix with a whisk or a hand blender until the batter is emulsified.
  12. Add color to your soap mixture
  13. Add fragrance oil to your soap mixture and bring to trace.  (Trace is a pudding like soap consistency).
  14. Pour soap mixture into soap molds (my favorite molds are silicone loaf molds).
  15. Cover molds with plastic wrap, and place molds somewhere that they will not be disturbed.
  16. Allow soap to remain in covered molds for 24-48 hours.
  17. Remove soap from the molds.  Slice.
  18. Allow soap to cure in a cool, ventilated area for 2-6 weeks.
  19. After soap has fully cured, you can use it.

Check out Natures Garden Soap Making Supplies

For awesome ideas in soap making please check out Natures Garden’s Free Recipes and Classes.