Category Archives: soaping terms

May
24

How Do You Make Homemade Soap?


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How Do You Make Homemade Soap? How Do You Make Homemade Soap?

Are you a new soap maker? If so, then this is going to be a great blog for you! Today we are answering the following question; How Do You Make Homemade Soap? Since there are a few different ways to make soap, we are going to talk about the two basic methods for soap making. First, we will talk about Melt and Pour Soap, which will include things like adding colorant, choosing scents, and finding the right mold. Then, we will talk about how to make Cold Process Soap, which includes formulating the recipe, choosing a mold, scenting, and adding colorant. While these two methods are similar in a few ways, there are many differences between the two and ether one can be a better option depending on the situation. So, let’s get started in learning all about soap!

How Do You Make Homemade Soap?: What are the Different Types of Soap?How Do You Make Homemade Soap?: What are the Different Types of Soap?

Before we introduce you to soap making, we need to talk about the difference between Melt and Pour Soap and Cold Process Soap. Both can be made at home, but they each require different steps. Melt and Pour soap is the simplest option of the two, as soap batch has already been created. Plus, the lye has already cured and you can use the soap immediately. All you have to do is melt your soap base and create the appearance you want for your batch. The other option is Cold Process Soap, which allows you to formulate your bars to be perfect for your needs. While this method has a bit more time invested, there is a lot more that you can do creatively with CP Soap.

How Do You Make Homemade Soap?: Melt and Pour Soap Making

If you are just ready to get to making cute soaps, then you may want to start with melt and pour soap. While you can’t change the properties of the soap base too much, this method of soap making gives you the freedom to make some pretty amazing soaps.

How Do You Make Homemade Soap?: Different Kinds of Soap BaseHow Do You Make Homemade Soap?: Different Kinds of Soap Base

While you can’t choose every ingredient, you can choose between several quality soap bases that will be sure to clean and moisturize your skin. We have soap bases that contain real honey, skin loving goats milk melt and pour soap base, and so many more. Regardless of what you are looking for in a bar of soap, you will find that all of our soap bases have quality ingredients that are hard to beat. You can look though all of the melt and pour soap bases available at Natures Garden.

How Do You Make Homemade Soap?: Coloring MP SoapHow Do You Make Homemade Soap?: Coloring MP Soap

There are a few different routes you can take with coloring your melt and pour soap. If you are trying to create a more natural bar of soap, then you may want to use herbs to color your soap. This is a good idea for face soaps, as well. So, you soap will have a more natural hue and will have the added beneficial properties of the herb. You can find suggested herbs for colorants on our Soap Coloring Class. Another great option for coloring are Da Bomb of FUN Soap Colorants, which will provide bright colors that are perfect for creating vibrant hues.

How Do You Make Homemade Soap?: Scenting MP Soap

There are a few ways to scent your homemade soaps. Some people are curious about how to scent soap naturally. Of course, we could use essential oils, which are all derived from natural sources. You can find your favorite natural scent on the Essential Oils page of our website. Since there is more variety, other people have turned to fragrance oils. We at Natures Garden have hundreds of diverse fragrance oils, which you can find alphabetically by clicking here. For each scent you will find whether it can be used for soap and what amount you can use. So, there is no need to worry whether the scent you are getting won’t work for melt and pour soap.

How Do You Make Homemade Soap?: MP Soap MoldHow Do You Make Homemade Soap?: MP Soap Mold

Finally, you are going to want to choose the soap mold for your recipe. This will depend on how big you want you soap to be. If you are going to be creating an embed or want to make small soaps for guests, then you may want to look at our Guest Soap Molds. For larger bars, you can look through the Mold Market Soap Molds or the Silicone Soap Molds. These sections have larger shapes and even a loaf mold, which is perfect for creating a big loaf from which you can cut bars of soap.

How Do You Make Homemade Soap?: Recipes for Making MP SoapHow Do You Make Homemade Soap?: Recipes for Making MP Soap

If you are looking to get inspired, then you may want to check out our Melt & Pour Soap Recipes. There are many different types of soaps that we have created and there are step by step instructions available for each one. We have soap that looks like cupcakes, candy, flowers, and so many more gorgeous designs! One fun recipe that we have is the Rainbow MP Soap Recipe and is scented with the heavenly scent of Angel Wings Fragrance Oil. With all of these fun recipes available, you are sure to find a recipe that you love!

How Do You Make Homemade Soap? : Cold Process Soap Making

Once you learn the basics, making soap from scratch is such a fun process! You can create a bar that has all the best properties to make a batch that is tailored to be just right for you. All you need to do is choose your favorite ingredients and their amounts to formulate a recipe. Then, you can get creative with scented oils, soap molds, and soap colorants!

How Do You Make Homemade Soap?: Soap Making SafetyHow Do You Make Homemade Soap?: Soap Making Safety

One of the most important parts of making soap from scratch is safety, as cp soap uses lye. So, you will want to tie your hair back, wear safety goggles, clothing that covers arms and legs, closed shoes, and a face mask. You can read more about soap making safety and find the soaping safety supplies we offer by clicking here. Also, you will want to have a well ventilated area to create your lye solution. Another very important thing to remember is that you should only pour lye into water and make sure to go slowly while stirring. Don’t let these precautions scare you though. You will be perfectly fine as long as you are wearing your safety gear and are being cautious!

How Do You Make Homemade Soap?: How to Create a Soap RecipeHow Do You Make Homemade Soap?: How to Create a Soap Recipe

There are all kinds of properties that you may want to have in your batch of soap. Many people want to know how to make moisturizing soap, how to make sensitive skin soap, or any other properties. The best way to do it is formulate your very own soap recipe and the simplest way to create your very own uniquely perfect soap recipe is the Soap Calculator. All you have to do is enter the oils and butters that you will be using in the recipe and it will tell you all the characteristics of the bar before you even make it. From this point you can tweak the amounts or switch out an ingredient to create a batch that is just right.


How Do You Make Homemade Soap?: Adding Scent to CP Soap

While many of the same scents can be used in both CP and MP soaps, there are more factors to consider for cold process soap. Again, you can either use a fragrance oil or an essential oil. But, the fragrance oil’s have the potential to change the consistency and emulsification of your batch. So, you have to be wary of ricing, where the batch clumps and looks like rice pudding. Also, a scent could cause acceleration. This is when the trace happens sooner, which is when the soap emulsifies. The batch will get thick enough to leave a trace of soap on top of the batch after scooping some out and drizzling it back in. Lastly, you could have separation of the fragrance or discoloration of your finished soap.

Some fragrance oils won’t cause any issues and others may cause a few of these issues, its all about the chemical make up. For instance, vanilla scents will often discolor to a dark color due to the vanillin and may need a Vanilla White Stabilizer. If you are curious about a specific fragrance oil, then head over to the Natures Garden YouTube channel. We have tested every scent in one of our soap recipes to show exactly how the scent performs in soap! While we do have a brief explanation of the scent performance on each Fragrance’s page, this allows you to actually see whats happening to the soap.

How Do You Make Homemade Soap?: Coloring CP SoapHow Do You Make Homemade Soap?: Coloring CP Soap

Again, you can use either herbs or soap pigments to color you soaps. There a few pigmented herbs that can be used to naturally color your soap. In our coloring class, we have options you can use for creating yellow, green, brown, red, and purple hues. But, we have found that Da Bomb and FUN soap colorants are more stable and vivid in cold process soap. While these colorants are created in a laboratory now, they  are able to create versions that are more pure and better than what was previously mined. One example of CP soap that takes the best of both options is the Total Hot Man CP Soap Recipe, which includes Activated Charcoal and Tomato Red FUN Soap Colorant.

How Do You Make Homemade Soap?: Choosing a CP Soap MoldHow Do You Make Homemade Soap?: Choosing a CP Soap Mold

Once your batch of cold process soap has reached trace and is ready to pour, it will be hot. So, you are going to need to make sure that your mold can handle it. Otherwise, your soap mold could end up melting and making a big mess. This means that it would be unlikely that you will be able to make small cold process guest soaps. However, most Mold Market Soap Molds will hold up just fine! Also, all of the SIlicone Soap Molds are sturdy enough to handle the soap. If you are looking to create a loaf of soap, then you may want to try the Silicone Soap Mold- 4 Loaf Molds. Alternatively, you can use a mold like the Silicone Soap Mold- 6 Cavity Flower to create individual bars in fun designs.

How Do You Make Homemade Soap?: Recipes for Cold Process Soap MakingHow Do You Make Homemade Soap?: Recipes for Cold Process Soap Making

If you aren’t ready to create your very own formulations yet, then feel free to try out one of Natures Garden’s very own recipes! We have all kinds of different types of Cold Process Soap Recipes that you can choose between. Furthermore, you could enter a batch of soap we have created into the soap calculator and change a few ingredients. This would be a great to practice formulating recipes. Also, you may want to try out our Beginners Cold Process Soap Recipe if this is your first time with CP soap. Whether you make your own recipe or start with ours, you are sure to find what you need to create soap that you will love. 

 

How Do You Make Homemade Soap?: Talk to UsHow Do You Make Homemade Soap?: Talk to Us

We hope that this blog has been helpful in getting all of you beginning soap makers started. If you have any more questions about anything regarding soap making, then definitely reach out to us! You can find us at the Natures Garden store or online on any of our social media pages. We can answer any questions on our Facebook page. Also, you can reach out to us on Twitter and Instagram with @ngscents. Plus, we would love to see what fun soap creations you have been able to make. Can’t wait to hear from you!

Apr
30

Color Dispersion


This entry was posted in bath and body, bath products, cold process soap, cold process soap colorant, cold process soap scents, Fragrance Oils, homemade soap, Natures Garden, soap colorants, Soap making supplies, soap oil properties, soaping terms and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on by .

color dispersionColor Dispersion in Soap

This picture shows the same exact recipe using two different methods of color dispersion in soap. Once the soap was poured, we noticed that some of the colorant was still on the sides of the bowls instead of actually incorporated into the soap (as shown in the soap on the right).  In addition, we noticed concentrated pockets of colorant in this cut soap.   Mainly, it is the difference between hand stirring the colorants in verses stick blending the colorants in, and failure to scrape the sides of the bowls to incorporate all of the coloring.  Regardless of the method that you choose, there are distinct advantages and disadvantages. The key to knowing which method works best for you is knowing your soap recipe and the time that it allows you.

Color Dispersion in cold process soap making can be a tricky aspect. After you figure out your color scheme for your recipe and the technique as to how you are adding your color, it then comes down to the actual challenge.

Really there are three options to color dispersion in your soap. They are hand stirring the colorant into the batter with a spoon, stick blending the colorant in, or the combination of both. The correct decision relies on a few factors though. These factors are: your recipe, time, and the number of colorants you want to add.

Hand Stirring
The best advantage of hand stirring colorants into soap is that it does not speed up trace. This allows you the perfect fluid soap batter for accomplishing a multi color swirl in your soap. But, hand stirring the colorant into your soap batter is slightly more time consuming because you really have to stir for some time to get the colorant dispersed. So, this is where knowing your recipe and window of time, especially if you are using multiple colorants, comes into play.

You will also have to be ready to move. When hand stirring, you have to stir, and stir quickly to get the full color dispersion of the soap colorant. And, do not forget to have your spatula ready to clean the sides and rotate the soap from the bottom of the bowl to make sure all of the colorant is evenly dispersed.

However, not all colorants can be hand stirred. Some of the colorants do not disperse as well as others with this method. The examples of these types of colorants would be titanium dioxide and the ultramarines. Colorants like these often need to be stick blended in order to get the full color dispersion among all of the soap.

Stick Blending
Stick blending your colorants in soap batter is ideal for true color dispersion. But, with stick blending time is a major factor. Stick blending will speed up trace (or the saponification process) in your soap. If too much time elapses while stick blending your colorants into the batter; certain swirling techniques cannot be accomplished. This is because the soap batter will be too thick, especially if you are using more than two colors in your soap recipe.

Besides speeding up trace, there is another factor to consider. When using multiple soap colorants and stick blending you will have to quickly clean your stick blender in between colors. But, you do have a few options when it comes to this. Some soapers keep a small bowl of water by their coloring station to quickly clean their stick blender in between colors. And, some just stick blend their colors in the correct order, but gently tap the stick blender to remove as much colored batter as possible before moving on to the next color. For example if you are coloring your soap green and yellow; you would start by stick blending the yellow first. This is because the yellow color is the lightest, and then move to the green.

The Combo
For the situations where you want to use ultramarines which almost require a stick blend to get the best color dispersion, but you still want several other colors in your soap; you can combo the blend. You would start by stick blending the colorants that need it, and then move on to the hand stirred colorants. If the stick blended colorants become too thick, simply stir them by hand and the soap batter will thin out slightly (or enough to pour). Just remember, you must move quickly.

What this really all comes down to is testing. Through making various batches of soap, you will be able to find exactly which method of color dispersion is best for you and your soaping recipe. There really is no right or wrong answer as to which method to use. Each soap recipe will vary.

Natures Garden offers FUN Soap colorants for soap making.  We even carry multiple neon colors to really make your soap “come alive”.

Apr
26

Gel Phase


This entry was posted in all natural, bath and body, bath products, cold process soap, cold process soap colorant, cold process soap scents, essential oil, fragrance and color, Fragrance Oils, homemade soap, Natures Garden, soap fragrances, soap ingredients, Soap making supplies, soap mold, soaping terms and tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on by .

inhibited gel phase soap In an earlier blog post, we briefly discussed insulation of cold process soap. Through insulating your soap, you are encouraging the best environment for the gel phase to occur during saponification. Keeping the soap evenly heated using insulation will prevent a partial gel from occurring. But, still there are no guarantees. Even with the best insulation, you may still end up with bars of soap that have partial gel evident.

So, what if you prevented the gel phase in your soap?

Although this is possible, it is still not guaranteed. It can be very tough to prevent the gel phase. But, there are some factors that need to be noted to help you in your quest to stop the gel phase. These factors are: the size of your mold, and the various ingredients in your recipe. The saponification process involves heat; it is the nature of the soaping beast. Choosing to eliminate the gel phase will change some elements to your soap and soaping process.

But, before we get to that information, let’s look at some specific reasons to prohibit the gel phase.

First, since you are decreasing the amount of heat that is in your soap, this will allow you to introduce certain soaping ingredients that normally would be finicky. Examples of these heat sensitive ingredients would be: dairy products, heat sensitive colorants; prone to morphing, and fragrances or essential oils with a low flashpoint.

Dairy Products
Soaping with ingredients such as creams, milks, and butters for example will provide your finished bars with rich, extra moisturizing elements. However, soaping with dairy products can be tricky. With the heat that is involved with the saponification process, there is a chance that dairy products will burn. This results in both discoloration and an off smell in your soap. By preventing the gel phase from occurring, you allow these ingredients a fighting chance in soap. And, you can even produce a creamier bar of finished soap.

Colorants
Whether you are deciding to go the natural route with herbs, or using colorants that you worry may morph; preventing gel phase allows the window of opportunity to stay open. Certain herbs discolor or darker from the saponification process. The same is true for some colorants that completely alter like deep purple to brown.

Now, for the colorants in the finished soap when the gel phase is eliminated: the bar colors are bolder and more vivid. Even if you choose not to color your soap batter, the elimination of the gel phase stops the darkening of the fats and oils in your recipe, allowing for a “whiter” finished bar.

Scenting Options
If you do not want to rebatch your soap recipe, preventing the gel phase in your cold process soap may allow you to scent your soap with low flashpoint oils without worrying that the saponification process will eliminate the scent. It is also possible for fragrance or essential oil scents to come through stronger in the soap because of the reduction of heat.

As for what preventing the gel phase means for your soaps, there are key points you should know. First, you must keep your molded soap chilled for the full 24 hours. Depending on your recipe, you may have to keep the soap chilled for an additional 24 hours as well.

Now, when you are ready to unmold your soap, it is crucial to let your molded soap reach room temperature before trying to slice it. Not allowing your soap to be at room temperature before cutting may result with your bars being brittle, and breaking apart as you slice them.

As for the saponification process, since you inhibit the gel phase, it will take your soaps longer to complete the saponification process. What this means is that the soap will need additional cure time before it will be ready to use.

So, whether you choose to insulate or prevent the gel phase, it is really up to personal discretion. Regardless of the method, the result is the same; a finished bar of soap. The only variables that change are the molding environment and the cure time.

Aug
15

Soap Terminology


This entry was posted in how to make cold process soap, Natures Garden, soap oil properties, soap safety, soaping terms and tagged , , , , , on by .

Below is a list of some common terms used when soaping.  Although we tried our hardest to ensure that all important soaping terms are defined, this is by no means a complete soaping dictionary.

Absolute-

Derived from plants through a method of extraction involving solvent, this term refers to the highly aromatic, concentrated oil that is extracted.

Additives-

Ingredients that can be added to processed soap, which are not included in the original recipe which was used to calculate the SAP value for lye purposes.  This additive category would include all ingredients with the exceptions of: lye, water, soaping oils, butters, and fats.  This means that additives would describe the addition of fragrance oil, soap colorant, optiphen, vitamin E, herbs, clays, etc.  Note:  If you have a superfat recipe, any leftover or excess oils, butters, or fats, not saponified by the lye solution would also be considered an additive.

Alkali-

Any compound with a pH higher than 7.  Alkali is also referred to as a base.  Both sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide are alkalis (or bases).

Allergen-

An element that can cause an allergic reaction (irritation, redness, swelling, discomfort) in one person, but does not adversely affect another.

Anhydrous-

Not containing any water.

Anti-bacteria-

The ability to fight off bacteria successfully.

Anti-oxidant-

Natural or synthetic elements that have the ability to decrease oxidation, preventing breakdown or spoilage.

Anti-septic-

The ability to fight or decrease an infection topically (on the skin), by restricting the growth of microorganisms.

Aromatherapy-

The use of certain fragrance or essential oils that can reform a person’s mood or actions.

Aromatic-

Being odoriferous, having a strong odor; usually found as a pleasant scent.

Astringent-

An element with the capability to pull together or constrict skin tissues (or pores), concurrently restricting the flow of natural secretion from the skin.

Base-

Also known as an alkali; any substance with a pH level higher than 7.  Both sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide are bases (or alkalis).

Botanical-

Directly from or related to plant or plant life.

Carrier Oil-

A substance that is used to dilute a fragrance or essential oil so that it is safe for use on the body.  Carrier oils can also refer to an oil that is used to carry the fragrance out in a product like roll on perfume.  Oils used in this way typically do not have a very strong scent, ie: sweet almond oil.

Castile Soap-

Originally denoting an olive oil soap bar; which was named for the region in Spain where it originated.  This term now is commonly given to any soap containing 100% olive oil (no other soaping oil used in the recipe).

Caustic-  

Usually a term to describe a very strong acid or base, this refers to a substance that by means of a chemical reaction will breakdown or destroy other elements under certain conditions.  Caustic material is very dangerous especially to elements containing water such as organic tissue.  An example of a caustic ingredient is sodium hydroxide (lye).

Cold Process Soap Making-

The term cold process is actually attributed to the fact that there is no outside heating source required for saponification; the lye mixture itself heats and saponifies the oils.  This process, abbreviated as CP, involves diluting lye into distilled water to form a lye solution.  This lye solution is then added to melted oils/fats/butters and stirred.  After trace is present, other additives such as fragrance and herbs may be added.  Batter is then poured into molds.  Insulation of molds is required.  Within 24 hours, the soap is solid enough to be removed from the mold and cut, exposing more soap area to oxidation.  For a time period of 4-6 weeks, the soap must complete the saponification process.  During this time, any excess lye and water is evaporated out, creating a milder and harder bar of soap.  Note:  Using a CP bar of soap that still has active lye will irritate and burn the skin.  A pH strip test is the best way to test if your soaps are safe to use.

Cold Process Oven Process Soap Making-

This soaping process; usually referred to as CPOP, involves diluting lye into distilled water to form a lye solution.  This lye solution is then added to melted oils/fats/butters and stirred.  After trace is present, other additives such as fragrance and herbs may be added.  Batter is then poured into molds.  The molds are then placed into a 170 degree oven for 1- 2 1/2 hr.  Within 24 hours, the soap is solid enough to be removed from the mold and cut, exposing more soap area to oxidation.  To ensure milder and harder bars of soap, the soap is then cured for 2-4 weeks.  Note:  Using a CP bar of soap that still has active lye will irritate and burn the skin.  A pH strip test is the best way to test if your soaps are safe to use.

Cosmetic Grade-

Available in different grades which are priced accordingly, this refers to ingredients that are safe for use on the body or in cosmetics.

Cure-

The time period that it takes to saponify soap so that there is no longer any active lye present.

D&C-

D & C is the abbreviation for drug and cosmetics.  If something is approved as D&C safe, then it can be used for cosmetics or in drugs.

Deodorize-

This term refers to the removal of a scent from something.  Within soaping reference, many soaping oils are deodorized to take away their natural scent.  Using deodorized soaping oils is one way to keep your fragrance true to their original aroma.

Detergent-

This agent has cleansing benefits and performs very similar to soap.  However, detergent is made from chemical compounds other than the fats/oil/butters and lye (like soap).  When a detergent is found in the ingredients list of a product, it must be labeled as a cosmetic product under the specific guidelines of the FDA.

Dreaded Orange Spots-

These spots occur in processed soaps that contain are large amount of soaping oils that have turned rancid.  These spots are orangish, brownish, beigeish in color.  It is believed that they are  caused by using soaping oils which are old.

Embeds-

Embeds refer to pieces of soap that are placed into the processing soap during the light trace stage.

Emollient-

Refers to having certain properties that are both soothing and softening to the skin.

Emulsifying Wax-

This is an emulsifier (a product that allows water based ingredients and oil based ingredients to bind together) used in hair and skin care. Emulsifying wax is used in skincare recipes to allow for thick creams.

Emulsion-

This is when two liquids which normally would not blend together, are blended together (oil/water).  Typically, the process involves an emulsifier (a product that allows water based ingredients and oil based ingredients to bind together).

Essential Oil-

Natural volatile oils that are extracted through various means from plant matter.  Extraction could take place by means of:  Distillation, expression, or the use of chemical solvents.

Exfoliate-

An additive that is added to processed soap that allows for the removal of dirt and debris from the skin, as well as, the removal of dead skin cells themselves, for healthier skin.

Exothermic- 

A term referring to the heat that is produced and released when a chemical reaction occurs. Examples of an exothermic reaction would be when lye is added to water or when the lye solution is added to the oils and butters.

Extract-

For essential oils, this is when the oil can be extracted from the plant without the use of any chemical solvents.  This is the most pure, concentrated form of an essential oil.

F,D&C-

F,D&C is the short abbreviation for Food, Drug, and Cosmetics.  If something is F,D&C approved, that means that it is a safe ingredient for use in food, drug, and cosmetics.

Fatty Acids-

Fatty acids are compounds either saturated or unsaturated, that are found in all fats and butters.  The fatty acids are what is responsible for giving your soap bars conditioning, creamy lather, bubbles, hardness, and cleansing ability.

Fixed Oils-

These are oils such as olive, palm, and coconut, that can be heated without evaporating.

Flash Point-

The possible lowest temperature that will inflame the vapors of a liquid when introduced to a source of ignition.  Flashpoints are available for every fragrance and essential oil that Natures Garden carries.  They are located in three places, on the website under the fragrance information,  on the specific MSDS sheets, as well as on the fragrance labels themselves.  Fixed oils also have a flashpoint.

Fragrance Oil-  

The blended combination of essential oils, synthetic aroma chemicals, and resins to produce a liquid that is extremely aromatic. Certain scents can only be derived synthetically such as Strawberry, Coconut, Banana, Mango (to name just a few) because these particular aromas cannot be made into essential oil form.

Gel Phase-

A possible phase of saponification, since not all soap batches will do this; occurring in the beginning of the process, this refers to the short period of time when the soap batter transforms to a warm clear gel.  This gel will then slowly return to being opaque, but it will also be a little bit more solid and cooler.

Glycerin-

A natural emollient and humectant, glycerin is a product of processed soap.  It is also often removed from commercial brands soaps and used to created creams and lotions.

Hot Process Soap Making-

This soaping process, generally referred to as HP, has steps very similar to the CP soap steps, but varies in that you are adding heat to the equation to speed up the saponification process. The heat sources are usually a crock pot or stovetop.  The HP process includes: making your lye water mixture, adding your oils to the heat source, blending the lye water and oils together, stir, cook, stir, stir, stir, add fragrance/ additives, stir some more. With this process, it is not until the soap batter is closer to a solid than a liquid that it is scooped and packed into a mold. Since the saponification process has already completed from the heat, there is no need to insulate your mold.  Although a cure time for these soaps is not required, to get a milder and harder bar of soap, a cure time of 1 week is advised.  The final soap bars will have a very rustic appeal.

Humectant-

An ingredient that not only attracts water from the environment, but also aids the skin in absorbing the water as well.

Hydrating-

Something that provides moisture or water to the skin.

Hydrogenated Oil-

An oil that has the addition of hydrogen added to it to make it a solid or semi solid at room temperature.  The process of hydrogenation helps to decrease the chance of oils turning rancid.

INCI Name-

Mandatory for labeling in the US and Canada, the INCI names were created to ensure that all ingredients would be listed the same on various cosmetic products.  This also allows for ease on consumers when comparing ingredient lists on cosmetics.  INCI stands for International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient.

Infusion-

Taking an additive such as a herb, and allowing it to steep in a liquid to extract the herb’s beneficial aspects.

Insoluble-

This means not able to be dissolved.  Oils/Butters/Fats will not dissolve in water.

Irritant-

Much like an allergen, irritants cause disturbing and painful reactions to skin.

Lye-   

Essential to the saponification process, lye is a caustic base.  Lye can also be referred to as either sodium hydroxide (used to make bar soaps) or potassium hydroxide (used to make liquid soaps).

Lye Discount-

The method of purposely decreasing the amount of lye that should be included in a soaping recipe.

Melt and Pour Soap Making-

This soaping process, usually referred to as M&P, involves using soap that has already gone through the saponification process.  The pre-fabricated soap base only needs a few steps before use.  First, the slabs are cut and melted down into a liquid form in order to add any fragrance, color, or additives.  Once this is complete, the liquid must be poured into a mold where it will harden.  The soap is finished and can be used once it has hardened and is popped out of the mold.  Since this process does not include the use of lye, no cure time is needed.

Melting Point-

The temperature at which a soaping oil will turn from a solid to a liquid, or starts melting.

MSDS-

The abbreviation of Material Safety Data Sheet.  These sheets contain all of the relevant information of a specific material.

Natural-

Anything that is of the earth, not containing any manmade or synthetic additions to its makeup.

Nutrient-

Within the realm of soap making, this refers to anything that is beneficial or has favorable advantages for the skin.

Organic-

Without the additions of anything man made or chemically altered, this term denotes anything that was once living.

pH scale-

A form of measurement for the acidity or alkalinity of a substance in ratio to water.  Ranging from 0-14, the lower the number, the more acid it is.  The higher the number, the more alkaline.  A pH of 7 will denote neutral (water has the pH of 7).  Processed soap will have a pH of 8.5-10.5 when cured completely.

pH strip-

Litmus paper containing water soluble dyes that when dipped into a liquid or set on a bar of soap will show a color.  The color is then compared to a chart to find the pH level.

Photosensitizers-

A substance that once used on the skin will make the skin super sensitive to the sun or to sunlight;  increasing the chance of a sunburn in some people.

Preservative-

An ingredient that is added to a substance that will prevent the breakdown and spoilage from microbial growth.

Potassium Hydroxide-

Symbolized as KOH, this is used for lye solution of gel or liquid soaps.  Also known as caustic potash.  This ingredient is a very strong base with a pH of 14.  Note:  The SAP values of your recipes fats/butters/oils will vary depending on whether you are using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH).

Rancidity-

The breakdown or spoilage of oils/butters/fats used in soaping.  Often, there is a stale or off smell due to the decomposition of the oil/butter/fat.

Rebatch-

Considered a do- over in the soap making process, this process involves the use of soap that was already crafted through CP or HP.  The processed bars are grated down and melted with a heat source, usually a crock pot, but other sources are used as well.  A liquid, like water or milk, is added to help prevent scorching of the soap shavings.  If a rebatch is being done due to an error, the correcting elements are added too.  The rebatch heats for 1 hour.  Once it is in a thick liquid form, any additives such as color, fragrance, or herbs, are added.  The thick batter is scooped out and molded.  Once cooled completely, the soap is removed, cut, and cured as usual.  Rebatching is generally done for two main reasons.  The first is to correct a soaping error or seize.  The second is for the addition of additives that may not survive or react badly during the saponification with active lye.  An example of these temperamental additives would be natural exfoliates.

Refined oils-

These are oils that have been filtered, removing any impurities in the oils.

Safety Equipment-

A category for all of the equipment used to keep one safe during the soaping process.  This equipment includes but is not limited to:  Safety goggles and/or face shield, rubber gloves,  a face mask, aprons, etc.  This category would also include items like protective coverings for work areas, fire extinguishers, bottles of neutralizing substances (such as vinegar for lye spills), first aid kit, etc.

Saponification-  

This is the process of the chemical reaction that the lye solution and oils/fats/butters go through when making soap.  Saponification produces both soap and glycerin.  Glycerin naturally occurs as a byproduct of this chemical reaction.

SAP Value-

The abbreviation for Saponification Value.  This refers to the number of milligrams of lye that is needed to completely saponify one gram of a specific oil/fat/butter in a soap recipe.  Note:  The SAP values of your recipes fats/butters/oils will vary depending on whether you are using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH).

Seize-

A term referencing the condition of the soap batter when saponification has occurred enough that the batter is no longer a liquid, and has started to solidify.  This occurs while mixing together the ingredients of a soap recipe when the batter becomes too thick to mix easily or pour into a mold.

Soap Measurements-

Soap Measurements are measured in weight, not volume.

Soda Ash-

Sometimes forming on processed soaps, this powdery substance has no direct negative effect on soap bars.  Soda ash can be cut or wiped off bars.  Insulating soaps while in the mold will help prevent soda ash.  Soap that has soda ash can be sprayed with rubbing alcohol to improve the appearance of your soap.

Sodium Hydroxide-

Symbolized as NaOH, this is used for lye solution of solid bar of soap.  Also known as caustic soda.  This ingredient is a very strong base with a pH of 14.  This is the component that is interchanged with KOH (Potassium hydroxide) for saponifying gel or liquid soap recipes.  Note:  The SAP values of your recipes fats/butters/oils will vary depending on whether you are using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH).

Soluable-

A substance that can be dissolved in a liquid.

Superfat-

This term involves purposely adding an excess of soaping oils or fats to your batter that are not included in your calculated recipe for lye saponification.  This is done to intentionally make your soap bars richer in soaping categories such as creaminess, moisturizing, bubbles, etc.

Surfactant-

A substance that reduces the surface tension of a liquid when it is dissolved.  In soap, surfactants allow for the dirt and impurities to be rinsed off of the skin.

Synthetic-

Something that is created chemically.  Not natural.

Tallow-

Rendered from animals, this is the hard fatty substance used for soap making.

Trace-

This term references the stage in the soaping process where the batter begins to thicken because of the saponification process. You will know if your soap batter is at trace by drawing up some of the batter with your spoon to see if it leaves any trails on top.  If the lines in the batter disappear, the batter is not in full trace.  If the lines stay visible on the surface, then your batter has traced.

Vegan-

Products that are produced without the use of any animal ingredients or animal parts.  If a product contains tallow/lard/beeswax, it cannot be vegan.

Volcano Effect-

This term describes when water is added to lye, WHICH SHOULD NEVER BE DONE!  The top layer of the lye starts to dissolve from the chemical reaction with the water.  Immediately, the water starts dissolving and releasing heat.  The heat causes a hard crust to form, and the water starts evaporating.  The lye that is below the crust remains dry, and untouched by the water.  As more water is added, pressure starts to build from the dissolving and heat release.  The crust ruptures from this pressure and force, causing the dry lye, partially dissolved lye, steam, and boiling water to spew out the top resembling and active volcano eruption.  ALWAYS ADD LYE TO WATER!

Volatile-

Oils that will evaporate quickly under normal temperatures.

Water Discount-

The method of purposely decreasing the amount of water that should be included in a soaping recipe.  Doing so will accelerate trace and the saponification process.  Not recommended for newbie soapers.

Soaping Abbreviations:

-KOH: Potassium hydroxide

-NaOH: Sodium hydroxide

-H20: water

-TD: Titanium Dioxide

-DHHP: Direct Heat Hot Process

-HP: Hot Process

-CP: Cold Process

-MP: Melt & Pour

-B&B: bath and body

-SB: Stick Blender (or shea butter)

-FO: Fragrance Oil

-EO: Essential Oil

-ISO : In Search Of (or in reference to isopropyl alcohol)

-SS : Skin Safe

-OOB: out of the bottle

-CPHP: Crock Pot Hot Process

-CPOP: Cold Process Oven Process

-DWCP, DW: Discounted Water Cold Process

-OHP: Oven Hot process

-DBHP : double boiler hot process

-DHHP : direct heat hot process

-MWHP : microwave hot process

-RT: Room temp

-AVG:  Aloe Vera Gel

-SAP:  Saponification values

-DOS:  Dreaded Orange Spots

-AO:   Animal Oil

-PKO: Palm Kernal Oil

-OMH: Oatmeal Milk & Honey

-OM: Oatmeal

-GM: Goats’ Milk

-CM: Coconut Milk

-PKF: palm kernel flakes

-EVOO: Extra virgin olive oil

-OO: olive oil

-SAO: Sweet Almond Oil