Coconut Vanilla Fragrance Oil
What Causes Sinkholes in Candles?
Regardless of whether you are making container, pillar, or votive candles, sometimes sinkholes will occur regardless of how cautious and meticulous you are when crafting your candles.
Sinkholes are the arch nemesis of any candle. You pour your heart and soul into your perfectly executed craft only to find after your long awaited set up time has elapsed that you have a dreaded sinkhole. Ohhh the hatred.
Sinkholes are the crater like openings around your wick. They vary in size and depth, and have a direct effect on how your candle wick functions. Sinkholes occur naturally from the process of the wax setting up. As wax is heated to melt it into liquid form, the wax expands literally taking up more space as it changes form from solid to liquid. On the flip side then, as wax is cooling, hardening back to it’s original solid state; it begins to retract and in essence shrink. If the wax cools too quickly though, the liquid will begin to harden where it sits without filling in the open areas from retracting. This is the reasoning as to why sink holes can appear in your candles. However, this is only one factor to consider. Although sinkholes are easily fixed with re pours, there are a few precautions and tips that we have found to help minimize sinkholes in candles.
The key to remember: Temperature is Everything
The best working environment for setting up your candle making station is somewhere with ventilation as well as a controlled 70 degree temperature, without any drafts or breezes.
In order to achieve the best candle possible temperature must be monitored. We know the effects of pouring a candle below the suggested degree, adding a fragrance at an incorrect temperature, and even melting/pouring wax too hot. Containers and molds are just as finicky when it comes to sinkholes in candles. In order to truly allow your candle to set up naturally, there must be no variances in temperature. Any containers or molds that touch the melted wax must be at room temperature. Natures Garden suggests two options in prepping your molds and containers. If applicable, place your container/mold in a room temperature setting with enough time prior to their use to allow them to naturally come to that degree. This is especially true for those of you that keep your glassware in the basement or garage in the winter months. Your second option is to place your containers/molds on a cookie sheet, and then in the oven on the lowest setting for 15-20 minutes. This is the quick way to warm your containers/molds.
When pouring your melted wax into your room temperature container/mold, it is just as important that your candle has a chance to cool in a uniform matter. What this means is that the outside portion of the container/mold should cool in its own natural time. Shocking the wax to harden by means of refrigeration or a fan will allow for the candles exterior to harden too quickly before the inside area of the candle wax has a chance to naturally release trapped air. This trapped air is another factor that causes sinkholes in candles or small pin sized bubbles in your finished votives.
Because temperature plays such a crucial role in candlemaking, anytime you need to do a second pour the magical time is 2 hrs. Doing a second pour too early or too late on a cooling candle can have big flaws on the physical look of your completed candle. In some cases, it may even result in second sinkhole.
Other Ways to Reduce Chances of Sinkholes
One Natures Garden tip to preventing sinkholes in candles is to stop the pour right where the sides of your container start to change shape. Never expect to pour a candle up the neck of your jar and not get a sinkhole.
Make sure in all of your candlemaking excitement that you do not rush the pour of the candle. Remember, it is not a race to see how fast you can fill your containers/molds. Filling your glassware/molds too fast will cause sinkholes in candles.
What Are the Odds:
Although sinkholes can occur in any candle style, typically single pour pillar and container waxes are less likely to get them as long as you are using the correct wax for your candle style. All waxes are not created equal; using the wrong wax for your intended candle will produce a sinkhole.
It is the nature of the beast that votive waxes will always require a second pour. The key to remember when making votive candles is to only leave 1/16″ open from the top of your votive mold for the second pour. What this does is allows the votive to harden and shrink with just the right amount of open surface area to allow for the second pour to cool in a uniform manner, both preventing sinkholes from occurring again, as well as not showing the second pour line on the finished votive. Also, only leaving 1/16″open in your votive mold for the re pour will prohibit the small air bubbles from occurring on the outside area of your votive candle.
In the instance where a container or pillar candle needs a re pour, it is a wise to poke relief holes half way down the candle before completing the second pour. This gives the cooling wax a final chance to release any air bubbles that may be trapped in the hardening wax before they too become a sinkhole.
On a final note, sinkholes are never fun (that is unless you do it on purpose for a fun test your candle knowledge segment on Facebook). Now that you have an arsenal of sinkhole preventative measures to use, sinkholes may never be a problem for your candles again.
Can you use crayons to color candles?
Although, staring at a beautiful stack of wonderfully vibrant crayons, we can understand why there would be an urge to use crayons as a colorant for candles. I mean, let’s look at what a crayon is…a stick of colored wax, right? Logically, they should work. However, this is absolutely not the case.
You should never use crayons to color your candles. The reasoning behind this is the actual colorant of the crayon. These colors are achieved with the use of pigments, and pigments unfortunately are not soluble. What this means is that when a crayon is melted, the color of the crayon breaks down into small pigment particles that exist in a dispersed manner among the melted wax. These pigments appear as if they had changed the color of the wax; like candle dyes do because dyes dissolve into the candle wax, but remember the pigments are simply dispersed.
Now, due to the way that a wick works in candles, there must be a melt pool apparent to keep a candle flame going. As the wick continues to burn, the melted wax from the wet pool is pulled through the wick. This is how the fragrance (or hot scent throw) of the candle is released into the air. The problem that coloring with crayons in candles presents is that since the pigments and the wax never combine, the pigments are also pulled up through the wick. But, these pigments will not, unlike the melted wax, flow properly through the wick. These pigments will in fact clog your wick.
The results of a clogged wick prevent your candles from burning properly, inhibit your candles hot scent throw, and will even cause your candles to smoke.
So, in summary no matter how tempting that box of 64 crayons look, never use crayons to color your candles. You will want to stick with dyes specifically formulated for candle making; Natures Garden offers liquid candle dyes and color block dyes in an array of vibrant colors.
When does wick size matter?
Knowing when to move up to the next size wick for candles is one of the trickiest aspects to candle making. There is a fine line with wicking a candle. You want to find that perfect balance between a sensational hot throw and long burn time. Wicks, are the vessels to ensuring you have made the best possible candle. You want your candle to burn slowly and evenly all the way to the bottom, leaving nothing but the wick tab behind. The right wick has the capability of doing this, but they also have a direct effect on the hot scent throw. And when it comes to scent throw, this is one feature of candles that is extremely significant.
There are many different kinds of wicks available; HTP, CD, Hemp, Zinc, or Wooden. Each wick has different qualities associated with them, and that is why testing for your perfect wick size is vital to your candle crafting. Usually, within the wick selection process there are a few factors to consider. First, wick selection will differ depending on which fragrance oil you use in your candle wax. Second, wick size is determined by the diameter of your candle container/mold. Third, wick size is determined by the type of wax you are using to make your candles. Fourth, wick size is determined by how much colorant you use in your candles.
Now, it could be possible that your candle will need a double or maybe even a triple wick. This is not unheard of. Sometimes, especially with the larger candles or with candles that are shaped differently (such as star), you need the addition of extra wicks to make sure that your candle has an excellent wet pool touching all sides of your container.
Once you know the type and size of the wick that works best for your candle needs, the next step is to familiarize yourself with the term “wick up”. Wick up in candle making is when you purposely use a larger wick. This generally comes into play for a few reasons. If you notice in your testing that you have a poor melt pool, you might want to consider a wick up. Wicking up in this situation will allow for a hotter burn, therefore reaching more wax to allow for a fuller melt pool.
Another reason to wick up is if you are struggling to smell the hot throw of the candle. In order for scent throw to be possible in melted wax, the fragrance oil needs to be in a volatile state- meaning ready to evaporate quickly. The best way to ensure this is a hot burning wick. As the melted wax pool is pulled throw the wick, the fragrance (or scent) is released into the air.
Another aspect to consider is the fragrance oil itself. There are certain fragrance oils such as Vanilla ones that almost always require a wick up. This is because Vanilla fragrance oils are thicker and using a slightly larger wick will prevent your wick from clogging and/or possibly drowning out. Fragrances with heavy base notes, such as patchouli, vetiver, amber, and musk will also likely require a larger wick.
The wax that you are using for candle making can also come into play for a wick up situation. Any time you use a vegetable wax, you will want to wick up to the next size wick for your candle. Whenever you use a vegetable wax, which requires a hotter burn, you want to make sure that the wick when lit, will be hot enough to melt the wax properly, and release the fragrance into the air.
The other factor that will require a larger wick size in candles is the use of heavy amounts of candle dye in your candles. Candle dye slows down the capillary action of the wicks, and thus reduces the burn of the wick. Increasing your wick size will help you combat this issue.
If you are interested in seeing Natures Garden’s suggestions for wicks, please check out candle wick chart. However, please note that this information should never replace your testing process.
The most crucial burn to your new candle is its first one. This is what is known as a memory burn. The initial burn is the one that is most vital to a complete melt pool. And, even more importantly a memory burn in the candle is the one that sets the boundaries and scent throw for every burn after that.
Preparing for your Memory Burn
Never leave a burning candle unattended. A good rule of thumb to prepare for your memory burn is to know the diameter of your candle. For every inch in diameter that your candle is wide, you need to gauge one hour of burn time. So, if your candle is 3 inches wide; you need to be able to burn your candle the first time for at least 3 hours. So, for the memory burn, it is important to start it when you know that you will be able to keep an eye on it for the allotted time necessary.
Although lighting candles definitely adds to the ambiance of a room, certain precautions do need to be in place for the open flame of a candle. Never burn a candle where small children or pets are within reach. The wax of a melting candle is very hot and can cause severe burns.
Before you light your candle, make sure that the wick is no longer than ¼” high. Be careful not to cut your wick too low, this is a sure fire way to drown your wick out in the melted wax. This is a key tip to remember each time that you light your candle. Recalling this simple step each time will lessen the amount of soot and smoking from your candle.
Always keep your candle free of wick trimmings, matches, and any other debris. Any of these items could be flammable. Hello Fire Department!
Why a Memory Burn is Important
All candle waxes retain a memory. In order to have a full melt pool, where liquid wax is touching every side of the container, the candle has to have a memory of that. If the first time you burn a 4” wide candle, and only get a 2 inch wide melt pool before you extinguish the candle, you have already inhibited your candle. If you prevent the full memory burn from occurring the result is never being able to achieve a clean, full melt pool all the way down to the bottom. The melt pool will follow the boundaries already established from the memory burn and will only ever reach 2 inches wide.
Besides getting the most out of your candle time with a full memory burn, there is another reason why memory burns are so important. With a full melt pool on your candle, you will notice a stronger scent throw from your candle.
The earliest recorded proof of soap making, saponification, was found around 2800 BC in ancient Babylon. The recipe for this soap-like substance consisted of water, alkali, and cassia oil. Years later, in ancient Rome, soap was made using tallow, tree ash, and water. Fast forward to today, soap is made using vegetable or animal fats/oils, and an alkaline mixture of lye and water. One thing is for certain: soap cannot be made without lye. Even when soap was made with tree ash, water, and tallow, the tree ash contained lye. You see, fats and water do not mix together, therefore, lye works as an emulsifier that allows these polar opposite ingredients to combine to make soap.
Before you make soap, make sure that you become familiar with the safety precautions to follow when handling lye. Natures Garden provides a Soap Making Safety Class that will explain the hazards of soap making, and the necessary safety gear that you should wear when making soap.
Now that you understand how important safety is when making soap, you will need to buy the equipment and soap making supplies you need to make homemade soap.
Equipment you will need for soap making- By the way, once your equipment comes into contact with lye, you can NEVER use this equipment for food contact again! Ingestion of lye can kill you.
1. Heavy duty plastic bowls
2. Plastic spoons or Silicone spatulas
3. Whisk or Stick Blender
5. Soap Safe Molds- such as plastic or silicone (never allow lye to come into contact with aluminum)
6. Scales to weigh out your ingredients
7. Plastic wrap to insulate your soap while it cures
8. Safety goggles, safety gloves, safety mask, and wear long sleeve clothing to protect skin from being burned.
9. Spray bottle containing vinegar. Keep a bottle of vinegar with you when mixing your lye just in case; it will neutralize the lye and stop the burning process immediately.
Soap Making Recipe and Exact Amounts that you will need to make soap:
The recipe we use at Natures Garden to test our fragrance oils is listed below. We use this recipe because it allows you to make colorful swirled soap once you have more experience. We also love this recipe because it is very moisturizing to the skin, yet still provides a creamy lather. This recipe makes 3 pounds of soap.
12.16 oz Water (345 grams)
4.4 oz Lye (125 grams)
9.6 oz Olive Oil (272 grams)
9.6oz Shea Butter (272 grams)
6.4 oz Coconut Oil 76 (181.5 grams)
6.4 oz Palm Oil (181.5 grams)
2 oz. Copperhue Suntan Lotion Fragrance Oil
FUN Soap Colorant (optional- but if you use color, we suggest using orange color)
Instructions for making soap:
For awesome ideas in soap making please check out Natures Garden’s Free Recipes and Classes.
Natures Garden offers a great program for our customers. By becoming a registered user, not only will you be saving time with each order that you place, but you could also be saving money! With Natures Garden’s Loyalty Reward Points Program, you earn points with every completed order, product review, or refer a friend. It is super easy to join, free of cost, and also allows you to bank your reward points until you choose to use them. Hello, do I see a savings coming your way?
How do I qualify for the Loyalty Rewards Points Program?
A: In order to start earning reward points, all you have to do is become a registered user. Simply click on “Register & Start Earning Award Points”, fill out the information and that is it. Plus, just for signing up, you receive 2 reward points to get you started. Many people have concerns about sharing information with online companies. We also understand your desire to keep personal information just that, personal. However, our system can only track, assign, and apply point for users who are registered. Rest assured, however, that we do not sell, rent, or distribute customer information to any third party.
How do the Reward Points accumulate?
A: For every dollar that you spend while logged into your account on Natures Garden products, you earn one point. The more products that you purchase, the more points you earn. If an order is placed as a “guest” or through Paypal Express without logging into your Natures Garden account first, you will not earn any reward points for that purchase. Another way that you can earn reward points is by posting product reviews while logged into your Natures Garden account. If you share your thoughts on Natures Garden products that you have purchased, you have the potential of earning 1 point per review. We encourage the sharing of the pros and cons with other Natures Garden shoppers. When your review gets posted, the point you’ve earned is banked. Please note: There are several things that will prohibit the posting of your review. You can only review an item once. You must submit your name, even if your review will be posted anonymously. You must rate the item between 1-5 stars. Including websites in your review is strictly prohibited and will result in the deletion of your review immediately. As well, another way to earn rewards points is any time you refer a friend to Natures Garden, you will receive 2 points for each register user that places an order with us.
So, what do the reward points mean?
A: For every 100 reward points that you accumulate, you may receive $1 off your next purchase with Natures Garden. Reward Points will never expire, so you can bank them until you are ready to use them. Some of our customers choose to use their reward points each time they place an order. Some of our customers do not use their reward points until they have several dollars in savings. It is all just personal choice.
How do I view my accumulated points?
A: To view your current point balance, click on the “My Account” link at the top of the screen. Log into your account. Your point balance will appear on the first page. Please note when you earn reward points on your purchases, these reward points will not show up in your account until you have paid for your order, and your order is shipped. Once your order is shipped, your reward points will show up in your account, and can be used on any upcoming purchases with Natures Garden.
If I return an item, will points be deducted from my account?
A: Yes. The points earned for the purchase of an item are deducted if the product is returned.
How do I redeem points I’ve earned?
A: Redeeming points is as easy as earning them. Just shop as you normally would. Make sure that you are logged into your Natures Garden account or if checking out by using Paypal Express, log into your Natures Garden account first. During the checkout process, you’ll see an option to apply your points to the current order. Check the box and the discount will appear on the emailed receipt that you receive. Loyalty Reward Points can not be redeemed for cash.
I would like to apply my reward points to my order, but I forgot to click the box before I confirmed, is there any way I can apply them now?
A: We are unable to apply point discounts to orders after they are submitted to Natures Garden for processing and shipment.
What are fragrance oils made of?
Fragrance oils are a mixture composed of essential oils, synthetic aroma chemicals, and aromatic resins. In order to achieve the scent that a perfumist is trying to achieve, the perfumist has more than 3000 different fragrance ingredients that he may use (natural and synthetic). These ingredients come in the form of liquid, powder, or crystalline. In order for a perfumist to be able to dissolve the powder and/or crystalline ingredients into liquid oil, he must use solvents. A common solvent that has been used for over 50 years is DEP (Di Ethyl Phthalate). While this solvent has been declared as safe by even the most intense worldwide standards, many companies, such as Natures Garden, decided years ago to only add fragrance oils to our line that were phthalate-free (at the request of many customers). Additionally, 99% of our old fragrance oils were reformulated phthalate-free years ago; our perfumist used alternative solvents that were phthalate-free.
Although solvents are a necessary component in fragrance oil production, some companies may sell fragrance oils that contain diluents: cutting agents that ultimately reduce the strength of a fragrance oil. A common diluent is DPG (Di Propylene Glycol). Important note to anyone who is using fragrance oils for candle making or soap making: Never use fragrance oils that contain DPG for these applications. DPG prevents a candle from burning correctly, and is one of the main reasons that Cold Process Soap seizes. Natures Garden sells concentrated fragrance oils, and we never dilute our fragrance oils. Although diluents should not be used for candle making or soap making, they are a necessary ingredient to use when making incense/potpourri (cones, sticks, and liquid). Another example of the need to use diluents is when making candles with essential oils. Some essential oils may need to be thinned out with a diluent so that they can properly travel up the wick and burn correctly. Typical diluents added to essential oils for this purpose are: iso Propyl Myristate, or di-Octyl Adipate. Neither of these diluents are natural, but are effective for this purpose. According to our perfumist, in order to create natural candles, fractionated coconut oil may be used as a diluent for essential oils; however, we have not personally tested this. As stated above: Never add DPG to essential oils for candle making or soap making. All of the essential oils sold at Natures Garden are 100% pure and unadulterated. Therefore, it is up to you to add diluents to them when making candles.
So, how does a perfumist create a fragrance oil? We know that fragrance oils are a mix of essential oils, synthetic aromatic chemicals, and resins. We know that a perfumist must use the proper solvents to dissolve powder and crystalline ingredients into the fragrance oil. A perfumist can either duplicate an aroma by use of gas chromatographic (GC)-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) (which shows him the ingredients contained in a fragrance), or he can create a unique fragrance oil by combining the right combinations of top, middle, and base notes.
Top notes are the fragrance aromas that you smell when you first open the bottle. This is because they tend to evaporate the quickest of other notes used in fragrance manufacturing. Perfumists typically use between 15-25% of top notes in fragrance production. Common examples of top notes are: Lemon, Orange, Mandarin, Grapefruit, Basil, Bergamot, Cardamom, Clary Sage, Coriander, Eucalyptus, Juniper, Neroli, Peppermint, Pine, Tea Tree, Thyme, and Lavender.
Middle notes provide the body of the fragrance, and are smelled after the top notes have faded. Perfumists typically use 30-40% middle notes when creating a fragrance oil. Examples of middle notes are: Chamomile, Cedar, Cinnamon, Clove, Frankincense, Geranium, Rose, Ylang Ylang, Palma Rosa, Jasmine, and Marjoram.
Base notes are the notes that tend to linger in the air, and are smelled last. Base notes, such as musk, are the ingredients that give a fragrance “staying power”. Without the use of base notes, fragrance notes will evaporate very quickly and not provide ample scent throw. A perfumist typically uses 40-55% base notes in the formulation of a fragrance. Base notes, such as musk, are one of the most expensive components in fragrance production. Without the proper use of these ingredients, fragrance will not last very long. Examples of base notes are: Musk, Benzoin, Patchouli, Sandalwood, Vanilla, and Vetiver. The main perfume house that Natures Garden works with also owns multiple musk-manufacturing companies. The partnership that we have with this perfumist allows us to keep our prices lower than most of our competition. In fact, the majority of fragrance manufacturers rely on our perfumist to supply them with the musk components they need to manufacturer their scents.
It is important to understand that even though a perfumist has high-tech machinery at his disposal to analyze the components of a “smell”, perfumery is an art, reserved for individuals with the talent of blending fragrance notes to create beautiful fragrance accords. Perfumery is a science and a real art. Fragrance oils are protected under the “trade secret” clause of the FDA, therefore, perfumists never disclose a full ingredient list of the “art” that they created. When selling a product in the US that is governed by the FDA, one must simply state the word “fragrance” on the label. Ingredients of your product must be listed in descending order according to weight; which usually (but not always) means that fragrance is listed as one of the last ingredients on your label.
The alternative to fragrance oils is essential oils. Although essential oils are natural and may provide therapeutic benefits, there are several drawbacks to using essential oils that should be mentioned: 1. The cost of essential oils are typically much higher than fragrance oils, 2. Essential oil prices can fluctuate based on weather, crops, and the trade relationships between countries, 3. Essential oils are not as sustainable as fragrance oils, 4. Essential oils do not provide the variety of scents that fragrance oils provide. You will never get a vanilla essential oil, a blueberry muffin essential oil, or a strawberry essential oil; only fragrance oils can provide these scents, 5. Essential oils can cause just as many allergic reactions as fragrance oils (perhaps even more). In fact, if the EU is successful at preventing known allergens from being contained in perfumes, many of the most well-known perfumes will need to be reformulated without essential oils. The majority of the 26 known allergens on the EU list are from natural sources; 16 are essential oil constituents and two are absolutes. While the debate continues on whether you should use fragrance oils or essential oils in your finished products, Natures Garden carries both fragrance oils and essential oils (for those who want all-natural scents). Regardless of whether you choose fragrance oil or essential oil, scent sells products. Not only do scents allow people to smell nice, scents also have the ability to create memories. What happy memories do you have with certain scents? I’m certain you have many.
Thank you for relying on Natures Garden for your fragrance oils and essential oils! Natures Garden has more than 16 years of experience in the fragrance industry, and we are the largest distributor of fragrance oils in the US. Our fragrance oils and essential oils are truly priced at wholesale prices; allowing our customers to make quality products, and earn a higher profit margin themselves.
Hedge Root uses Earth energy to create and recreate magic for those seeking it with enchanted herbs. Magic begins with intent so I create a herbal magical solution to manifest a desired goal. “Holistic Magic”
I create herb oils and herb textures that can take up to weeks and even months to capture the energy and scent I place in all Hedge Root products so when you place your order I then began to blend your selected scent and intent so that it comes to you fresh and charged. Life in Herbal Magic ~ Be Blessed.
I only use Natures Garden fragrance oils in my products. The oils blend so well with my herbal oil and herbal textures. The scents such as Witches Brew, Queen of the Nile (an all-time favorite), and Berry Bewitching Brew I can never get enough of. Goddess of the Universe is awesome when mixed in with the Shea Butters and the Aromatherapy scents. I also use Natures Gardens packaging supply for body washes and sprays as well. AND I CANNOT FORGET THE RITZY BATH GEL AND THE SPRAY MIST! THE GALLON SIZE LAST A VERY LONG TIME. Natures Garden is perfect for business that use these products to grow their business and create products that are a true value.
I am Natures Gardens customer owner of Hedge Root ~ Liane Gil
PS, Thanks Natures Garden.